COVID-19 Curated Data, Modeling, and Policy Resources

COVID-19 presents an urgent need for data and tools for states, health care decision makers, providers, and others to predict need and direct resources, based on the best available evidence. Data sources, analytic tools, policy options, and other resources are increasing rapidly. Below is a repository of publicly available resources organized by Mathematica.


A Sankey (flow) diagram; nodes on the left indicate data sources and nodes in the middle and on the right indicate data compilations. For detailed information on the data sources described below (such as data coverage, updating frequency, level of aggregation, API availability, and the extent of overlap between different sources), visit Mathematica’s COVID Data and Resources GitHub page.


Public Perceptions and Attitudes

These sites summarize data that's been collected on the public's perceptions and attitudes related to the pandemic, including COVID-19 risk, public health recommendations, mitigation strategies, and more.


COVID States Project

Source: COVID-19 Consortium for Understanding the Public’s Policy Preferences Across States, a joint project by researchers from Northeastern University, Harvard university, Rutgers University and Northwestern University
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The COVID State Tracker is a 50-state biweekly survey that assesses attitudes towards COVID-19, vaccines, social distancing, and trust in government and other organizations. The website includes reports organized by topic and a dashboard with state or national graphs of these perceptions and attitudes for each two-week period since April 30, 2020. The survey switched from monthly to every other month in December 2020 and is weighted to be representative of each state's population. Data are available for download, and individual level data are available upon request.

 

COVID-19 Vaccine Monitor

Source: Kaiser Family Foundation
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The Kaiser Family Foundation's COVID-19 Vaccine Monitor contains rich data on attitudes towards the pandemic, social distancing policies, and vaccination, based on a July 2021 survey of 1,500 adults. Dashboard displays show detailed information on respondents' trust in vaccines from different manufacturers, receptiveness to various pro-vaccine persuasive messages, doubts about vaccine efficacy or side effects, intentions to vaccinate their children, and concerns about emerging variants. Statistics are presented overall and broken out by respondent race, gender, political affiliation, vaccination status or urban/rural status. The survey was conducted via telephone and weighted to reflect the 2019 Census's distribution by age, race and socioeconomic status.

 

COVID-19 Tweets

Source: Northeastern University's Lazer Lab
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COVID-19 Tweets tracks the most popular pandemic-related Twitter content shared by each state and the country as a whole, for each month since January 2020. Through their dashboard, users can view the most popular links, domains and keywords for each state; the links, domains, and keywords that are most distinctively popular in a given state; and the most popular keywords shared nationally that are flagged as misleading. For each category, graphs of monthly content volume are displayed, and the underlying data are downloadable.

 

SARS-CoV-2 Variants

This section contains information about SARS-CoV-2 viral variants, including the timing of their emergence and prevalence, by type.


Outbreak.Info

Source: Center for Viral Systems Biology at Scripps Research
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This resource reports daily information on the prevalence of more than thirty Variants of Interest, Variants of Concern, Mutations of Interest and Mutations of Concern. For a given SARS-COV-2 variant or mutation, a dashboard generates graphs of the daily prevalence at the state level, cumulative prevalence at the county level, as well as general information about the emergence of the variant, with the option to download prevalence data. Testing sample sizes are also reported.

 

Variants of Concern in Virginia

Source: Virginia Department of Health
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This state dashboard reports the prevalence of SARS-COV-2 variants across the state of Virginia. Visualizations of variant prevalence are available at the weekly regional level. The dashboard also offers particularly detailed tables on the cumulative prevalence of variants by ten-year age groups, gender, or race, with the option to download the data. The dashboard is updated weekly.

 

Variant Proportions

Source: CDC COVID Data Tracker
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This dashboard provides national and regional estimates of the prevalence of various SARS-CoV-2 variants. Visualizations are provided for two-week intervals beginning in April 2021. Notably, because variant data are only available for cases where a sequencing test was performed, this dashboard adjusts proportions accordingly, using a survey design approach to provide more representative estimates. The resulting national and regional estimates are a closer approximation of the true prevalence of the variants, irrespective of sequencing frequency.

 

School Policy Responses

This section contains information about school openings and closures, as well as COVID-19 transmission mitigation efforts, such as online learning and ventilation.


Washington School Reopening Data

Source: Washington Office of the Superintendent of Public Instruction (OSPI)
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This state dashboard reports schools' reopening progress for each week beginning in January 2021. Data on the percentage of students receiving in-person instruction on a daily or weekly basis are available for elementary, middle and high school students. The dashboard offers particularly detailed information on each district's weekly plans to offer remote, small-group, hybrid, or traditional in-person education, and whether or not in-person education is targeted towards students with disabilities, living in poverty, learning English as a second language, or with other special educational needs.

 

Covid-19 School Response Dashboard

Source: The School Superintendents Association (AASA); the National Association of Secondary School Principals; the National Association of Elementary School Principals; Brown University Professor of Economics Emily Oster.
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This dashboard combines state-provided enrollment and case count data with school and school district biweekly surveys. The surveys assess in-person enrollment counts, staff counts, case rates, and various measures of coronavirus transmission mitigation efforts, such as online learning, 3- or 6-feet distancing, ventilation, or masking. Data are available by school type, grade range, usage of social distancing measures, and state. The dashboard also includes links to each state's data sources related to COVID-19 transmission in schools, with notes on what information is included in each state's data releases. Importantly, the data include cases among people associated with in-person schooling, regardless of where cases were acquired.

 

Map: Coronavirus and School Closures

Source: Education Week
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This site provides information on school closures across the U.S. A map shows what types of closures are in place, and several tables provide current and historical details on the duration of closures in each state.

Data note: This site was last updated September 16, 2020.
 

District Responses to COVID-19 School Closures

Source: Center on Reinventing Public Education (CRPE)
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This website contains information on school closures for 46 districts. It compiles district-level data into a map and links to a table with detailed information on district responses to school closures.

 

Vaccination

These sites provide detailed data, information, and resources related to vaccine development, vaccination rates, and vaccine acceptance.


US COVID Risk and Vaccine Tracker

Source: Covid Act Now
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Covid Act Now (which joined forces with the Covid Exit Strategy and includes partners from Georgetown, Stanford, and Harvard) provides state and county-level data on COVID-19 cases, deaths, and hospitalizations, as well as test positivity, ICU occupancy and vaccination rates. Testing and ICU occupancy data come from the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. The tracker aggregates these measures into an overall time-varying COVID risk indicator and a static measure of community vulnerability. The tracker offers email alerts for regions of interest as well as a weekly roundup of new research on COVID-19.

 

Coronavirus (COVID-19) Vaccinations

Source: Our World in Data
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This dashboard provides comprehensive cross-country comparisons of cumulative and daily vaccination rates, as well as the number and share of people who have received one or both doses. Data are included for 191 countries from December 15, 2020 to the present. The dashboard provides links to each country's vaccination data source, and for select countries, data are also available on the number of vaccinations by manufacturer, vaccine eligibility rules, and vaccine attitudes.

 

COVID-19 Dashboard

Source: Ohio State Department of Health
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Ohio's state COVID-19 vaccination dashboard provides detailed information on the state's vaccination efforts, including graphs showing daily counts of the number of people who have been vaccinated (fully and partially) overall and by county. County-level aggregated vaccination data are further broken down by ten-year age groups, ethnicity, race, or sex. The dashboard also provides daily information on the locations of vaccination sites across the state.

 

NRC-RIM Vaccine Central

Source: Univeristy of Minnesota's National Resource Center for Refugees, Immigrants, and Migrants (NRC-RIM)
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NRC-RIM has created a toolkit of resources for vaccinating people who may be uninsured, undocumented, or who do not speak English as a first language. It includes fact sheets and references on the sources of vaccine hesitancy among these populations, guides for conducting COVID-19 Vaccine-related focus groups, guidelines for culturally relevant messaging, educating potential vaccine recipients on their legal identification needs, health insurance requirements, and immigration-related concerns, and best practices for inclusive and effective vaccination drives.

 

COVID-19 Vaccine Tracker

Source: London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine
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This site aggregates information related to the development and delivery of several COVID-19 vaccines. It covers the development timelines for over 300 vaccine candidates; the locations, dates and particpant demographics for all vaccine clinical trials; a review of vaccine efficacy research that is updated weekly; and daily country-level vaccination rates for each of 27 vaccines currently being delivered.

 

Racial Disparities

These resources shed light on racial and ethnic disparities in pandemic effects.


Showing Racial Disparities in COVID-19 Cases

Source: Othering & Belonging Institute at UC Berkeley
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This dashboard offers state-level estimates of the age-adjusted racial disparity in COVID-19 infections and deaths. Graphs show infection and death rates across all racial/ethnic groups, rather than comparing each pair of racial/ethnic groups separately. State-level measures of divergence in infection and death rates are aggregated to create an equity rank for each state, which is mapped to show how states compare in terms of disparities in pandemic effects.

 

The Color of Coronavirus

Source: American Public Media (APM) Research Lab
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The APM Research Lab calculates actual and age-adjusted COVID-19 mortality rates by racial/ethnic group, as well as changes in these rates over the course of the pandemic. The dashboards offer deeper dives into the geographic variation in mortality rates within each racial/ethnic group. Data analyses were conducted using a combination of CDC- and state-reported COVID-19 mortality statistics.

 

Case Counts and Testing Rates

These resources include data sources and dashboards consolidating COVID-19 case data from multiple sources. The Johns Hopkins Coronavirus Resource Center includes worldwide data, and state- and county-level data for the United States.


COVID-19 Resources for Local Health Departments

Source: National Association of County and City Health Officials (NACCHO)
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NACCHO has created several dashboards that help stakeholders and the public quickly get a sense of the pandemic's local effects. The dashboards pull data from the JHU dashboard to create several different pictures of local health based on: summarizing recent case counts and deaths; classifying counties into whether their COVID cases are emergent, epidemic, or controlled; and providing county-level summaries of hospital capacity, population, and demographics by age, insurance coverage, disability or food stamp usage.

 

Tracking COVID at U.S. Colleges and Universities

Source: New York Times
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This website from the New York Times provides and interactive map showing COVID-19 case counts at U.S. colleges and universities since the start of the pandemic. For each school (which is grouped by state, and searchable), the site also provides cumulative case counts and an infographic showing how weekly cases per capita changed over time at that school between March 1 and September 2. The dataset is believed to be the most comprehensive collection of COVID-19 cases at colleges. However, not all colleges report COVID-19 case counts publicy, and at least 250 colleges ignored inquiries from NYT about their case numbers. Further, because colleges vary in testing rates, how they collect and report case data, and reopening plans, the data should not be used to make campus-to-campus comparisons.

Data note: This site is no longer being updated as of December 11, 2020.
 

COVID-19 Nursing Home Public File

Source: CMS
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The COVID-19 Nursing Home Public File pulls together data reported by nursing homes to the CDC’s National Healthcare Safety Network system COVID-19 Long Term Care Facility Module. The dataset includes nursing home-level information on confirmed and suspected COVID-19 cases and deaths among nursing home residents and staff, as well as information on facility capacity, PPE supply, and ventilator capacity. The data are updated weekly.

Data note: When analyzing the data, CMS cautions users to consider whether facilities passed a data quality assurance check (used to identify reporting errors).
 

Coronavirus Locations: COVID-19 Map by County and State

Source: USAFacts.org
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The USAFacts COVID-19 dashboard displays maps showing COVID-19 cases and deaths by county and state and graphs showing daily counts of cases and deaths over time (overall, by state, and by county). Their data, which is collected from state and county-level webpages, is updated daily and available for download.

 

CV19 Lab Testing Dashboard

Source: hc1
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This dashboard provides state- and county-level COVID-19 viral and antibody testing rates, positive and negative test results, and testing results disaggregated by age and gender. The data are collected from more than 20,000 lab testing locations (based on data supplied by Lab Coalition members). While this does not represent all testing being conducted across the U.S., the real-time updates on the dashboard can help identify trends in testing and results. Public health officials and people affiliated with healthcare organizations must create an account (free) to access the dashboard.

 

Coronavirus in the U.S.: Latest Map and Case Count

Source: New York Times
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This website includes maps of the U.S. showing various metrics related to case counts. It also includes a narrative detailing the latest news and findings related to COVID-19. The data for all the graphs are available on Github.

 

Global COVID-19 Outlook

Source: Cov19.cc
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This dashboard contains case counts of COVID-19 around the world, by country and region. It also lists information about world-wide travel restrictions, as well as links to the WHO for advice and information on the virus for the public. It pulls data from government sources and news organizations.

 

COVID Tracking Project

Source: covidtracking
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The COVID Tracking Project has state-level case information for states across the United States. It includes links to data sources for each state as well as historical trends. It aims to provide the most comprehensive data on state-level testing for the novel coronavirus, filling gaps left by the CDC in its reported testing data. The project explains that testing is a crucial part of any public health response and sharing testing data is a necessary part of understanding this outbreak. This Google Document contains recommendations on the type of data states should report for maximum civic understanding. This link contains case numbers from the COVID Tracking Project by state in Excel spreadsheet form. This web page has national case numbers from the COVID Tracking Project in the United States, by date.

Data note: Data collection ceased on March 7, 2021, but the site continues to provide summaries and references to other COVID data dashboards.
 

JHU/ESRI Coronavirus COVID-19 Global Cases by the Center for Systems Science and Engineering

Source: Johns Hopkins Coronavirus Resource Center
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This dashboard pulls together multiple data sources to display confirmed cases, deaths, and recoveries from COVID-19 globally. In the United States, cases are documented at the county level. In China, data are at the province level. In Canada and Australia, data are at the city level. The remaining data are at the country level. Related links include a GitHub repository with all of the data sources used, a GIS feature layer with up-to-date information on COVID-19 cases, and other resources (such as an interactive case map visualization and guidelines on hygiene meant to inform both the public and policymakers about how to respond to the virus).

These worldwide data are consolidated continually. U.S. data include counts for each state and county, and some other jurisdictions.

 

Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) Cases in U.S.

Source: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)
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CDC’s COVID-19 web page includes links to each state’s public health website, where state-level reports can be found. State-level data may be more current than CDC data, as they may be updated before those updates are provided to CDC.

An overview of the number of COVID-19 cases in the U.S., overall and by state. The web page shows the national trend in COVID-19 cases by their report date and by the estimated date of illness onset. The page includes links to each state’s coronavirus web page.

 

COVID-19 Cases, Quarantine and Monitoring

Source: State of Massachusetts
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This website is an example of state-level data collection organized to provide information on coronavirus case counts (example as of 3/26) in Massachusetts by county, the number of residents under quarantine, and guidelines for lab testing of patients with suspected COVID-19 (with FAQs).

 

Hospital/Health Care Case Reporting

Source: Phoebe Putney Health System, Albany, GA
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Hospitals and health care systems are reporting and tracking their own cases.  These data may include more detail and more current reports than consolidated data, as they may not have reached state- or CDC-level reporting yet.  This example from Albany, Georgia provides daily updates of case counts including cases that are positive, negative, tested, awaiting test results, and in or out of a hospital.

 

Surveillance Tools

These resources are intended to help officials find COVID-19 cases, and include innovative surveillance methods that can supplement traditional case identification.


COVIDcast: Delphi Research Group

Source: Carnegie Mellon University (CMU)
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COVIDcast displays a map of real-time COVID-19 indicators (such as doctor visits, Facebook symptom reports, and Google search trends) for counties, metropolitan areas, and states across the U.S. Each indicator may vary in intensity (reflecting mild or more severe disease symptoms) over time. Taken together, these indicators may suggest heightened or rising COVID-19 activity in specific locations, and are being used as inputs to CMU’s pandemic forecasting system (to be announced at a later date). The code is available on Github.

 

Coronavirus: Changes in U.S. Mobility

Source: Descartes Labs
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This page includes maps and figures showing changes in population mobility over time, based on anonymized/de-identified mobile phone data collected by Descartes Labs. Descartes Labs has made state- and county-level aggregations of their data available via GitHub. The data are updated "regularly".

 

Social Distancing Scoreboard

Source: Unacast
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Unacast's dashboard shows county-level data on social distancing scores they've derived, percent changes in those scores over time, and each state's and county's assigned grade based on levels of decrease in the social distancing measures they calculate. Unacast uses mobile phone data to estimate changes in (1) average distance traveled, (2) trips to non-essential venues, and (3) number of human encounters. They estimate human encounters based on the probabilty that two mobile devices are in the same place at the same time.

 

Mobility Trends Reports

Source: Apple
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This page includes graphs of daily mobility trends and percent changes in mobility levels compared to pre-COVID-19 mobility, by mode of transportation (walking, driving, or public transit). Data are provided by country, sub-region, county/region, and city and are updated daily.

 

COVID-19 Community Mobility Reports

Source: Google
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Reports show daily country-, state-, and region-/county-level percent changes in mobility, by type of location visited (retail & recreation, grocery & pharmacy, parks, transit stations, workplaces, and residential).

 

COVID-19 Impact Analysis Platform

Source: University of Maryland
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This platform provides data and metrics on COVID-19’s impact on population mobility, broken down by state trip type and date range, with daily data updates. The platform is based on research findings from a multidisciplinary team of researchers at the Maryland Transportation Institute, working in partnership with the Center for Advanced Transportation Technology Laboratory. The platform is intended to inform the general public and support decision making.

 

National Syndromic Surveillance Program

Source: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)
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This National Syndromic Surveillance Program (NSSP) landing page has links to tools to help epidemiologists find cases of COVID-19, including a resource center and information pages. The NSSP is a collaboration among CDC, federal partners, local and state health departments, and academic and private sector partners that have formed a community of practice to collect, analyze, and share electronic patient encounter data received from emergency departments, urgent and ambulatory care centers, inpatient health care settings, and laboratories. Syndromic surveillance provides real-time information about changes in patient and usage patterns that allow for rapid response. Data are integrated through the shared BioSENSE platform. 

 

Rapid Health Information Network (RHINO)

Source: Washington State
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Washington State is using the CDC National Syndromic Surveillance Program’s (NSSP’s) ESSENCE dashboard to monitor potential coronavirus encounters and supplement traditional case-finding activities.

This page contains information about Washington's syndromic surveillance system, Rapid Health Information Network (RHINO). This is a real-time, population-based monitoring system that is used to identify, investigate, and design data-driven, rapid responses to emerging public health threats. These data can provide insights into chronic disease burden, environmental threats, and injury trends. Because the data are so versatile, syndromic surveillance is rapidly growing into a basic tool for public health practitioners and their partners. This link directs to the RHINO data set.

 

Wastewater Surveillance to Determine SARS-CoV-2 Presence and Concentrations

Source: Mathematica, CDC
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Wastewater testing provides an alternative way to rapidly assess SARS-CoV-2 viral exposure among thousands of people, and in a manner that protects privacy. This cutting-edge surveillance tool can boost COVID-19 pandemic response by shedding light on infections among those who do not show symptoms or do not present for testing. Wastewater data can provide an early warning for new waves of infection and identify whether transmission is rising or waning. The CDC is working with state health agencies and testing labs across the country to develop a National Wastewater Surveillance System. Mathematica is providing analytics to translate lab data on sewage biomarkers into policy insights for state and local officials and is also advising federal agencies on standards and best practices for the national system.

 

Diagnostic Testing Methods and Coding

This section provides data sources on the performance of different diagnostic assays as well as test codes used to identify patients diagnosed with COVID-19. New ICD-10 codes for COVID-19 codes and repurposed existing codes will be important for tracking the epidemic, conditions associated with COVID-19, and treatment provided. Consistent with the WHO update to the ICD-10, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s National Center for Health Statistics (CDC/NCHS) will implement a new diagnosis code in the International Classification of Diseases, Tenth Revision, Clinical Modification (ICD-10-CM) for reporting, effective April 1, 2020.


NIH COVID-19 Treatment Guidelines

Source: National Institutes of Health
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The NIH maintains an archive of its official diagnosis and treatment guidelines, from April 2020 to the present. These guidelines include information on the relative effectiveness of certain tests, variations in treatment effectiveness by patient demographics or pre-existing conditions, and the efficacy of experimental treatments.

 

COVID-19 Testing Project

Source: UCSF, UC Berkeley, Chan Zuckerberg Biohub, and Innovative Genomics Institute
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This website provides tables and visual comparisons of performance of different commercially-available antibody tests, including lateral flow assays (also known as rapid serology tests) and ELISA immunoassays. Performance metrics include specificity and sensitivity, as well as percent positive, and are shown for different time periods since illness onset. The website provides a link to the scientific paper (in pre-print) detailing findings and methods.

 

CDC International Classification of Diseases, Tenth Revision, Clinical Modification (ICD-10-CM)

Source: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)
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This page documents updates to the ICD-10-CM codes. Announcements linked on the page summarize the interim advice on coding for COVID-related illnesses and subsequent announcement of a COVID-19 diagnosis code,  U07.1.

These addenda summarize new additions to the ICD-10-CM list of diseases and injuries, including the addition of the COVID-19 diagnosis code and codes for vaping-related disorders.

 

COVID-19 Coding and Guidance

Source: AMA
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This announcement from the American Medical Association (AMA) reports a new Current Procedural Terminology (CPT) code for reporting COVID-19 tests.  It also links to a fact sheet that summarizes coding guidance for this new code. The fact sheet includes a summary of the code and its purpose, a clinical example, and a description of the procedure.

 

LOINC and SARS-CoV-2/COVID-19

Source: LOINC
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LOINC (Logical Observation Identifiers Names and Codes) is a clinical terminology used worldwide; it is designed to consistently send clinical data electronically between health care entities. LOINC contains codes primarily for lab tests, diagnostic image testing, and clinical documentation and is mandated to be used to pass reportable lab test results to public health agencies. SNOMED, a clinical terminology, is a collection of medical terms across domains. This webinar from LOINC provides a recording and presentations from a collection of experts on the responses from key government and terminology experts on codes and descriptions to be used to consistently describe testing for and description of COVID-19.

 

Contact Tracing

These resources address several key topic areas, including: (1) contact tracing protocols and scripts; (2) training resources; (3) contact tracing workforce staffing calculators; (4) examples of public information campaigns; (5) case management and digital contact tracing tools, including discussions of data security and privacy considerations, and (6) other general resources.


Contact Tracing Protocols and Scripts

Steps to Conduct Contact Tracing for a COVID-19-positive Case: Guidance for Long-term Care Facilities

Source: Pennsylvania Department of Health
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This document provides checklists outlining the process of contact tracing if the person infected is a resident or staff member of a long-term care facility.

 

COVID-19 Sample Training Plans for Contact Tracers, Case Investigators, and Supervisors

Source: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
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CDC has provided various guides for contact tracing. The Talking with a Patient guide allows for the collection of critical information about a person (patient) diagnosed with COVID-19 and potentially exposed contacts, while providing support, referrals, and answers to questions the patient may have. The guide includes a script and table of potential contacts and exposure locations. The Notification of Exposure guide allows for an exchange of information with the person (contact) exposed to COVID-19 and offers an opportunity to answer questions and provide referrals for testing, medical evaluation and other necessary support services. The guide includes detailed scripts for the introduction, collecting demographic and health information, and reviewing quarantine recommendations.

 

COVID-19 Dynamic Call Center Script

Source: Qualtrics-XM
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This call center script was developed to help public health organizations deliver the most relevant information to people who call in with concerns about COVID-19. Staff can perform an initial triage to help callers pursue care based on their COVID-19 symptoms, address questions and give advice to symptomatic people based on CDC guidelines, and maintain an ongoing pulse of key trends related to call volumes, topics of concern, geographic locations, and more, as needed. Registration to access the script is free.

 

COVID-19 Contact Tracing Checklists

Source: Public Health Accreditation Board
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The COVID-19 Contact Tracing Checklists are tools for health departments to use to plan the expansion of their contact tracing programs to be responsive to the COVID-19 pandemic. The checklists itemize key elements of a COVID-19 contact tracing program. There are two checklists: Program Development and Infrastructure.

 

COVID-19 Command Center for STD Programs

Source: National Coalition of STD Directors
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The COVID-19 Patient Script for State Health Department Staff Assisting Local Health Departments document provides guidance for contact tracing staff when calling someone who recently had COVID-19. The COVID-19 Contact Investigation Interim Script document provides guidance when contacting an individual who may have had contact with someone while they were possibly contagious with COVID-19.

 

COVID-19 Community Tracing Collaborative Resources

Source: Commonwealth of Massachusetts and Partners in Health
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The Community Tracing Collaborative document provides a framework for reducing the spread of COVID-19, with examples of contact-tracing workflows and an outline of the scripts used for contact tracing. Key elements include widespread and decentralized testing; contact tracing; quarantine, isolation, and medical care; and support. The COVID-19 Community Tracing Collaborative Media and Outreach Approach page describes the efforts of the Commonwealth of Massachusetts and Partners in Health to maximize visibility of and trust in the Community Tracing Collaborative. The goal is to build awareness of and trust in the program; describe how it works; detail supports provided to confirmed cases; and gather information to help flatten and lower the curve of COVID cases.

The Contact Tracing Telephone Scripts document includes various telephone scripts developed by Partners In Health and the COVID-19 Community Tracing Collaborative. Scripts include the following:

· Voicemail scripts

· Script #1. You’ve been diagnosed with COVID; who are your contacts?

· Script #2. Contact tracing and testing referral for individuals.

 

COVID-19 Contact Tracing Playbook

Source: Resolve to Save Lives
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The goal of the playbook is to provide clear and action-oriented technical guidance and tools for federal, state, county, and local health departments to scale up COVID-19 contact-tracing efforts.

 
Contact Tracing Training Resources

Every Contact Counts: Contact Tracing for Public Health Professionals

Source: Northwest Center for Public Health Practice
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This 90-minute course is meant to complement existing disease surveillance systems, programs, and trainings, and includes interactive components that are 508 compliant.

 

COVID-19 Contact Training Course

Source: Purdue University Global
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Purdue University Global has developed a 6-8 hour self-paced course on contact tracing.

 

Contact Tracing—Get and Keep America Open: Supporting states, tribes, localities, and territories

Source: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
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CDC provides a COVID-19 Contact Tracing Training: Guidance, Resources, and Sample Training Plan that includes training topics that might be helpful for state and local public health jurisdictions to consider when designing their own training plan for COVID-19 contact tracers. This web page summarizes the core elements of contact tracing to stop COVID-19 transmission. This interim guidance document is intended to assist state, local, territorial and tribal health departments develop jurisdictional plans for the implementation and enhancement of COVID-19 case investigation and contact tracing efforts (content will be updated as new information is available).

 

ASTHO's e-Learning Center

Source: Association of State and Territorial Health Officials (ASTHO)
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ASTHO has developed a guide entitled "Coordinated, National Approach to Scaling Public Health Capacity for Contact Tracing and Disease Investigation." ASTHO's approach to contact tracing outlines a thee tier plan to layer contact investigator recruitment and training efforts: (1) a lay or para-professional contact tracer position, (2) a professional Disease Investigator Specialist (DIS) position, and (3) a healthcare provider or other clinical, epidemiologist, or other specialist positions to support tiers 1 and 2. These layers can be adapted by public health agencies based on their needs and specific circumstances, human resources systems, and available assets and resources.

ASTHO also provides an introductory online course for entry-level COVID-19 contact tracers, intended for health agencies rapidly training new contact tracers. The training will be augmented by state and local training required to orient individuals to jurisdiction-specific protocols. This training focuses on building knowledge for remote contact tracing; a subsequent release will include a module on field services. (You must create an account to sign in for free registration.)

 

General Contact Tracing Phone Calls

Source: TRAIN Learning Network
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This is a generalized version of a contact-tracing training created by the Michigan Department of Health and Human Services for COVID-19. (You must create an account to login.)

 

Epi Corps COVID-19 Case Identification and Contact Tracing Certification

Source: University of Houston, College of Medicine
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The University of Houston, College of Medicine has developed 12 hours of self-paced training on contact-tracing procedures. (You must register for free training.)

 
Contact Tracing Workforce Staffing Calculators

Contact Tracing Workforce Estimator

Source: Fitzhugh Mullan Institute for Health Workforce Equity, The George Washington University
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The Contact Tracing Workforce Estimator (CT Estimator) is a tool for state and local leaders to prepare for COVID-19 contact tracing in order to safely reopen and protect the health of communities.

 

Contact Tracing Staffing Calculator

Source: Prevent Epidemics
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This Excel calculator helps estimate staff resources necessary for scaling up contact tracing.

 
Case Management and Digital Contact Tracing Tools

Digital Tools for COVID-19 Contact Tracing

Source: World Health Organization
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This document classifies and summarizes key considerations for different digital contact tracing tools, and discusses opportunities for and challenges of integrating digital tools into contact tracing.

 

Contact Tracing/Exposure Notification Application Survey (Responses)

Source: COVID-19 Tech Task Force
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This Google document shows responses to a survey on apps used for contact tracing in the U.S. The survey includes information on the app name, intended use, app architecture, data storage, privacy, and more.

Data note: The survey was developed by private companies that are part of a technology industry coalition, including technology companies, executives, and advisors.
 

Digital Contact Tracing Technology: Overview and Considerations for Implementation

Source: Congressional Research Service
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This brief summarizes various contact tracing apps, considerations for their implementation, and related legislative proposals.

 

Covid-19 Contact Tracing: Efficacy and Privacy

Source: Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne (EPFL) 
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This article assesses the risk trade-off between privacy and efficacy that results when using contact tracing apps. It concludes that app-based approaches enjoy important advantages for tracing COVID-19 and that privacy risks can be mitigated. However, it notes a number of digital-tracing weaknesses, and cautions that debates about tracing should not detract attention from other COVID-19 response efforts, such as testing.

 

Contact Tracing—Get and Keep America Open: Supporting states, tribes, localities, and territories

Source: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
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The Digital Contact Tracing Tools for COVID-19 worksheet summarizes summarizes the primary uses and purposes of digital tracing tools, including the following:

· Case management tools that capture data on cases and contacts; some allow for automated notification and follow-up.

· Proximity tracking tools that use Bluetooth or GPS to track an individual’s exposure to cases; used in addition to contact tracing case management tools.

The Preliminary Criteria for the Evaluation of Digital Contact Tracing Tools for COVID-19 guidance document provides preliminary criteria to define minimum and preferred characteristics of digital contact tracing tools to help health departments overcome one or more obstacles in the COVID-19 contact tracing workflow. The guidance is based on preliminary research and targeted discussions with contact tracing and informatics experts across county, state, and federal governments; national public health associations; academic consortia; and nongovernmental organizations.

 

NOVID

Source: Carnegie Mellon University
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Whenever anyone anonymously self-reports a positive test, the app estimates who they might have transmitted COVID-19 to, based on which devices were near each other for long enough. NOVID alerts those people, and estimates who those people might have transmitted COVID-19 to and alerts them.

 

Covid Watch

Source: Stanford University (volunteers)
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App uses Bluetooth signaling to detect other users in the area and will alert users anonymously if they were in contact with someone who was confirmed to be infected with COVID-19. Covid Watch has also published a white paper on "Slowing the spread of infectious diseases using crowd sourced data."

 

Private Kit: Safe Paths

Source: MIT and Harvard University
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App can be used by both individuals and health authorities to enhance contact tracing.

 

CovidSafe

Source: Microsoft (volunteers) and University of Washington
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App alerts users about highly relevant public health announcements and potential exposure to COVID-19, and assists public health officials and contact tracing teams without compromising personal privacy.

 

ArcGIS Pro Proximity Tracing Tool

Source: GeoAnalytics
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This tool traces proximity events. Tracing potential proximity events can be applied to contact tracing to help find potential contact events.

 

CoEpi: Community Epidemiology in Action

Source: CoEpi
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Voluntary, Bluetooth-based contact tracing application includes self-reported symptom sharing to support exposure notification even before confirmation of test results.

 

PACT: Private Automated Contact Tracing

Source: MIT and MIT Lincoln Laboratory
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This website includes a video, info sheets, and technical specifications that describe PACT’s system for identifying people at risk of spreading COVID-19, by using the Bluetooth signals that cell phones send to each other. The site was developed in collaboration with Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston University, Carnegie Mellon University, Weizmann Institute of Science, SRI and Brown University, and a few individual contributors.

 

COVID-19 Center Analysis and Fact Sheets

Source: Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Center for Health Security
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A National Plan to Enable Comprehensive COVID-19 Case Finding and Contact Tracing in the U.S. outlines a vision for how to manage the COVID-19 pandemic, including ways to greatly expand case identification and contact-tracing capabilities; actions that the federal, state, and local governments and other organizations must take to stand up these capabilities as quickly as possible; and resources that will be necessary to accomplish comprehensive case finding and contact tracing. The Review of Mobile Application Technology to Enhance Contact Tracing Capacity for COVID-19 document reviews prominent apps developed to support contact tracing for COVID-19. It does not provide recommendations or examine the privacy or security implications of these technologies. Johns Hopkins has also developed a free six-hour training in Coursera on contact tracing.

 

Contact Tracing Apps in the United States

Source: Lawfare
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This article discuses some of the digital contact-tracing apps that are under consideration for use in the United States, including North and South Dakota’s Care 19 app and Utah’s Healthy Together app.

 

Privacy-Preserving Contact Tracing

Source: Apple and Google
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Google and Apple have provided draft documentation and technical specifications for an Exposure Notification system in service of privacy-preserving contact tracing.

 

COVID-19 Contact Tracing and Data Protection Can Go Together

Source: Abeler, J., M. Bäcker, U. Buermeyer, and H. Zillessen, JMIR Mhealth Uhealth
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The authors of this editorial discuss the implementation of app-based contact tracing to control the COVID-19 pandemic and discuss its data protection and user accessibility aspects.

 

Privacy and Public Health: The Dos and Don’ts for COVID-19 Contact Tracing Apps

Source: AccessNow
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The authors published a list of dos and don’ts for privacy-friendly COVID-19 contact-tracing apps.

 
Other Contact Tracing Resources

State Approaches to Contact Tracing During the COVID-19 Pandemic

Source: National Academy for State Health Policy (NASHP) & Mathematica
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This webpage summarizes the various approaches that each state has taken to contact tracing, including the state's contact tracing program model, workforce, technology, and funding. Users can explore states' contact tracing approaches by category, and a color-coded map categorizes states into one of three approaches: in-house, partnering, and contracting.

 

Contact Tracing for COVID-19: Assessing Needs, Using a Tailored Approach

Source: Center for Infectious Disease Research and Policy (CIDRAP)
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This report summarizes pressing issues with contact tracing, as well as recommendations, which include implementing a data-driven, needs-based approach.

 

Digital Contact Tracing for COVID-19: A Primer for Policymakers

Source: Auckland University of Technology, the University of Queensland, The University of Auckland, Masssey University
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This white paper covers various aspects of contact tracing, including digital and enhanced manual contact tracing, an evaluation framework, communicating about individual incentives, and assurances regarding privacy and security, among other topics.

 

COVID-19 US Maps—Interactive Contact Tracing, Rapid Testing, and Antibody Testing Map

Source: Clear Outcomes
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Clear Outcomes and IDS compiled a dataset of state resources available for COVID-19 contact tracing, rapid testing, and antibody testing. They individually researched all 50 states and the District of Columbia from April 20-23 to compile whether information on COVID-19 contact tracing was publicly available on the State Health Department website.

 

Our Response Efforts Around COVID-19

Source: The National Association of County and City Health Officials (NACCHO)
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This web page provides information on NACCHO’s COVID-19 response and lists resources related to COVID-19.

 

Coronavirus: What You Need to Know

Source: National Governors Association
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This web page provides up-to-date information on the status of COVID-19 in the United States and abroad, the actions that states and territories have taken to address it, and the latest efforts by the federal government.

 

Implementation and Management of Contact Tracing for Ebola Virus Disease

Source: World Health Organization
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This document includes the following information that might be useful for implementing COVID-19 contact-tracing programs: introduction to contact tracing in the Ebola response, general considerations for contact tracing, case definition, planning and preparation, personnel, implementation, and tools for contact tracing.

 

Provider Capacity and Patient Needs

These resources include publicly available data sources as well as COVID-19 modeling sites about hospital availability and supply, and the location of physicians and other clinicians.


Health Professional Shortage Areas

Source: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services
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This data set contains federally designated areas or populations with a shortage of health care workers. The Health Resource Service Administration’s Bureau of Health Workforce developed criteria to designate whether or not an area or population is a Health Professional Shortage Area, Medically Underserved Area, or Medically Underserved Population. The data set is freely available on Google Cloud. (After clicking “View Dataset,” first-time users need to create a project in Google Cloud to access the data).

Data note: This data set was last updated April 6, 2020.
 

Hospital General Information

Source: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services
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This data table includes all hospitals that have been registered with Medicare. This list includes addresses, phone numbers, hospital types, and quality of care information. Quality of care data are available for more than 4,000 Medicare-certified hospitals across the country, including more than 130 Veterans Affairs medical centers. You can use these data to find hospitals and compare the quality of their care. This data set is freely available on Google Cloud. (After clicking “View Dataset,” first-time users need to create a project in Google Cloud to access the data).

Data note: This data table was last updated April 1, 2020.
 

Healthcare Cost Report Information System (HCRIS)

Source: Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services (CMS)
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Medicare-certified institutional providers are required to submit an annual cost report to a Medicare Administrative Contractor (MAC). The cost report contains provider information such as facility characteristics, utilization data, cost and charges by cost center (in total and for Medicare), Medicare settlement data, and financial statement data. Together with Provider of Service (POS) data, these data can be used to measure hospital availability and supply.

 

2016/2018 Compendium of U.S. Health Systems

Source: AHRQ
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These data may be of use for linking hospitals to health systems and characteristics of health systems.

 

State Licensing Board Data Sources

Source: NPDB
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Data sources to identify the location and affiliations of physicians and other clinicians include commercial and state databases ranging from large databases compiled from multiple sources to lists maintained by state licensing boards.  

 

Health Information Exchanges (HIEs)

Source:
Go to resource

HIEs may provide useful information about real-time utilization by using their Admission, Discharge, Transfer (ADT) notification systems. To access these data, states will need to work with their HIE organizations to tap into the ADT information. In 2010, the Office of the National Coordinator for Health Information Technology (ONC)made State Health Information Exchange (State HIE) Cooperative Agreement Program awards to 56 states, eligible territories, and qualified State-Designated Entities. CMS issued the interoperability and patient access final rule on March 9, 2020. States have six months to comply with the rule.

 

At-Risk Populations

These resources include data sources and measures on high-risk populations, as well as efforts to examine risk factors, population needs, and risk-stratified outcomes. Risk is defined based on respiratory and other underlying conditions associated with severe COVID-19 presentation, social vulnerability, dense living conditions, and other factors.


COVID Behind Bars Project

Source: UCLA School of Law
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This resource contains data on COVID-19 in prisons, jails, and immigration detention centers, as well as pandemic-related prison and jail releases, legal filings and court orders, and grassroots and community organizing efforts. Graphs and sortable tables display the number and incidence of COVID-19 cases (cumulative and active), deaths and tests for all federal and state incarceration facilities, and several county-level facilities. The data can be explored by state, and statistical summaries are provided separately for incarcerated people vs. staff at different types of facilities. Facilities can be ranked by their overall incidence as well as incidence per incarcerated population. State-level data on vaccination rates is also available. A github repo contains downloadable source data on cumulative and active cases, tests and deaths, provided at the daily facility level.

Data note: The site provides a data reporting and quality scorecard and discusses in detail variation in each facility's reporting procedures and data quality, and the implications for understanding the pandemic's impact on incarcerated populations.
 

AARP Nursing Home COVID-19 Dashboard

Source: AARP Public Policy Institute
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This dashboard tracks various aspects of nursing home COVID-19 infection rates, staff vaccination rates and PPE availability, and staffing rates, using data from CMS. Graphs showing rates of PPE availability, COVID-19 case rates, staffing shortages, or staff vaccination rates are available for the US or for individual states on a monthly basis since June 2020.

 

Addressing the Needs of Medicaid Populations During the COVID-19 Pandemic

Source: Center for Health Care Strategies, Inc. (CHCS)
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This webpage from CHCS consists of a collection of resources related to addressing the impact of COVID-19 on Medicaid populations, and particularly those who are most vulnerable. The resources are grouped into categories such as telehealth, social needs, children and youth, and general resoures for states and health care professionals. The webpage is updated periodically with new resources.

Data note: This page was last updated July 24, 2020.
 

COVID-19 Community Vulnerability Index (CCVI)

Source: Surgo Foundation
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The CCVI combines data on COVID-19 risk factors and local healthcare systems with the CDC's Social Vulnerability Index to estimate county-level vulnerability to the COVID-19 pandemic. The vulnerability index is based on pre-COVID data and is meant to identify communities that are particularly vulnerable to COVID-19. The county-level vulnerability index is available for download via a spreadsheet.

 

City Health Dashboard

Source: NYU Langone Health
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Launched in 2018, the City Health Dashboard provides data on dozens of health, social, economic, envrionmental, and clinical care measures for U.S. cities with a population 50,000 or more. The dashboard includes maps showing how each measure varies across counties within the area.

 

19&Me: COVID-19 Risk Score Calculator

Source: Mathematica
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This website estimates how much risk COVID-19 poses to individuals. Users can get estimates by entering their zip code, age, gender, symptom presence, and social distancing measures.

 

Low Income Housing Tax Credit (LIHTC) Program

Source: U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development
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The LIHTC program gives state and local agencies the equivalent of nearly $8 billion in annual budget authority to issue tax credits for the acquisition, rehabilitation, or new construction of rental housing targeted to lower-income households. The LIHTC database, created by HUD and available to the public since 1997, contains information on more than 47,000 projects and 3 million housing units placed in service between 1987 and 2017. It is the only complete national source of information on the size, unit mix, and location of individual projects. This data set is freely available on Google Cloud. (After clicking "View Dataset," first-time users need to create a project in Google Cloud to access the data).

 

Pandemic Vulnerability Index

Source: National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences
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This dashboard provides a COVID-19 risk profile for each U.S. county based on a Pandemic Vulnerability Index (PVI), which is calculated using data from the CDC, county health rankings, and other population-level data. Components include a social distancing score, age distribution, number of hospital beds and co-morbities among others.

 

Identifying At Risk Populations During COVID-19

Source: IMAGE: NYC, The New York Academy of Medicine
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This site contains maps to identify neighborhoods with a higher risk of COVID-19 infections, based on demographic risk factors such as age, pre-existing conditions such as diabetes, and people living alone.

 

Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS)—Dual Enrollment

Source: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services
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This public data set was created by CMS and summarizes counts of enrollees who are dually eligible for both the Medicare and Medicaid programs, including those in Medicare Savings Programs.

 

Gross Domestic Product and Income by County

Source: U.S. Bureau of Economic Analysis
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This public data set provides a county-level view of income, wages, proprietors’ income, dividends, interest, rents, and government benefits, including a number of federal- and state-level subsidies.

 

U.S. Census Data

Source: U.S. Census Bureau
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The U.S. census count (also known as the Decennial Census of Population and Housing) is a count of every U.S. resident. The census occurs every 10 years and is conducted by the U.S. Census Bureau. Census data are publicly available through the census website, but much of the data are available in summarized data and graphs. The raw data are often difficult to obtain, are typically divided by region, and must be processed and combined to provide information about the nation as a whole. This data set is freely available on Google Cloud. (After clicking “View Dataset,” first-time users need to create a project in Google Cloud to access the data).

 

International Census Data

Source: U.S. Census Bureau
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The U.S. Census Bureau’s international data set provides estimates of country populations since 1950 and projections through 2050. Specifically, the data set includes midyear population figures, broken down by age and gender assignment at birth. In addition, time-series data are provided for fertility rates, birth rates, death rates, and migration rates. This data set is freely available on Google Cloud. (After clicking “View Dataset,” first-time users need to create a project in Google Cloud to access the data).

 

Point-in-Time Homelessness Count

Source: U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development
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This database represents the most comprehensive national-level assessment of homelessness in America and is based on data reported in the Annual Homeless Assessment Report to Congress. The data include point-in-time counts of homeless individuals; housing inventory counts conducted annually; and estimates of chronically homeless persons, homeless veterans, and homeless children and youth. This data set is freely available on Google Cloud. (After clicking “View Dataset,” first-time users need to create a project in Google Cloud to access the data).

 

Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) Enrollment

Source: U.S Department of Agriculture (USDA)
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This public data set published by USDA summarizes the total number of enrollees in SNAP by region. SNAP provides nutrition benefits to supplement the food budget of families and persons meeting eligibility criteria related to monthly income.

 

COVID-19 Preparedness: How Ready Is Your County?

Source: STAT News
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This dashboard seeks to help federal, state, and local officials across the country—particularly those in smaller communities—prepare for an onslaught of COVID-19 cases. The dashboard brings together a host of factors — from the relative age of the population to the number of nearby hospital beds and staff — to determine which counties are well-prepared for an outbreak and which counties might need more help.

Data note: The dashboard notes that the methodology underlying the map does not take into account important factors like rates of insurance coverage or the migration of people from cities to rural areas. It also notes that the IHME model that the map relies on offers rosier views than some other models. To compare the IHME model’s performance to other models, see the Resources for Comparisons COVID-19 Projection Models site.
 

Interactive COVID-19 Childcare Map

Source: Yale University
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This dashboard uses U.S. Census data to estimate child care demand for the children of workers in critical sectors. It contains a map showing the number of children at-need and allows for selection of various types of providers, from teachers to childcare workers and school administrators.

 

Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project (HCUP) Database

Source: AHRQ
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The Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project (HCUP, pronounced "H-Cup") is a family of health care databases and related software tools and products developed through a federal-state-industry partnership and sponsored by the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ). HCUP databases bring together the data collection efforts of state data organizations, hospital associations, private data organizations, and the federal government to create a national information resource of encounter-level health care data (HCUP Partners).

Many states collect Hospital Discharge Abstract Data that capture administrative, clinical, and demographic information on hospital discharges (including deaths, sign-outs, and transfers).

 

Secondary Impacts

The resources included in this section can be used to examine secondary (that is, indirect) impacts of COVID-19, including effects on employment, education, food security, and mental health.


Central Banks' Monetary Responses to Covid-19

Source: Bank for International Settlements
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This global database provides details on central banks' monetary policy responses to Covid-19 for 39 countries. The data include central banks' public announcements of monetary policy measures; various categories of responses; and changes to interest rate measures, reserve policies, lending operations, asset purchase programs and foreign exchange operations. A dashboard is provided to visualize the data.

 

SafeGraph Data for Coronavirus Response

Source: SafeGraph
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SafeGraph provides aggregated and anonymized spatial data on how people move throughout the U.S., including locations of points of interest where people spend time or money and traffic patterns (how often people visit, how long they stay, where they came from, where else they go) for specific places. Researchers can get free access to the data after completing a Google Form request.

 

COVID-19 Impact on Job Openings and Labor Turnover

Source: Bureau of Labor Statistics
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This site posts monthly reports (beginning in March 2020) summarizing results from the Job Openings and Labor Turnover Survey (JOLTS) during the pandemic. It provides tables summarizing the rates and levels of job openings, hires, and quits by service sector and by region, unadjusted and seasonally adjusted. These statistics are based on data collected by JOLTS from over 16,000 business establishments via phone and web interviews.

 

Tracking COVID-19's Effects by Race and Ethnicity: Weekly Updates on Americans' Health, Housing, and Livelihoods

Source: Urban Institute
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This webpage provides simple visualizations of the U.S. Census Bureau's Household Pulse Survey, which has collected weekly data on the impact of COVID-19 on household health, housing, and livelihoods, disaggregated by state, metro area, race, and ethnicity. The webpage allows policymakers and the public easily examine the disproportionate impact of COVID-19 on racial and ethnic minorities. The cleaned data used on the webpage is available through the Urban Institute's data catalog or their GitHub repository.

Data note: This page was last updated July 30, 2020.
 

Economic Tracker

Source: Opportunity Insights
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This dashboard, which draws on anonymized data from private companies and the U.S. Census Bureau, and various state Departments of Labor, shows the economic impacts of COVID-19, including impacts on consumer spending, unemployment claims, small business revenue, and job postings, by industry. The data can be used to understand job losses induced by the immediate economic effects of the pandemic, as well as the initial effects of the pandemic on job separation and search activity. The dashboard also displays COVID-19 impacts on student learning from Zearn (an education non-profit that partners with schools to provide a program called Zearn Math) and case data from The New York Times. The underlying data are not currently publicly available, though they may be made available in the future.

 

Household Pulse Survey

Source: U.S. Census Bureau
Go to resource

Created in response to COVID-19, the U.S. Census Bureau Household Pulse Survey collects data on household experiences related to employment, eduation, food security, housing security, and mental and physical well-being during the COVID pandemic. State-level data are collected and released weekly. The Census Bureau provides an interactive dashboard with maps, figures, and sortable tables showing data summaries , as well as downloadable data spreadsheets.

 

Small Business Pulse Survey

Source: U.S. Census Bureau
Go to resource

The U.S. Census Bureau's Small Business Pulse Survey collects data on the impact of COVID-19 on small businesses throughout the U.S. The webpage links to a dashboard that provides maps and graphs summarizing the data (which are periodically updated), and links to downloadable state- and MSA- level datasets.

Data note: Data collection closed in April 2021.
 

Forecasting Tools

These resources provide projections of case counts, exposures, infections, hospitalizations, and ventilator use, and proxy measures for infections.


Learning Epidemic Models for COVID-19

Source: UCLA Statistical Machine Learning Lab
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The UCLA Su-EIR model is a COVID-19 spread model that incorporates both reported and unreported recoveries alongside susceptibility, exposure, and infection to predict future cases and deaths. The website provides maps and graphs of state- and county-level COVID-19 prevalence estimates and compares model predictions against actual COVID-19 deaths and predictions from other models for any region and week in 2020.

 

COVID-19 Projections

Source: Columbia University
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The COVID-19 forecast, created by the Shaman group at Columbia University, has accurately predicted actual deaths and case rates through 2020. The model offers projections under various assumptions around the strength of social distancing restrictions during the prediction interval. Projections of case rates, death rates, and bed availability in the next week, three weeks, or six weeks can be exported in raw form from their GitHub site or viewed in graphs or maps.

 

Resources for Comparing COVID-19 Projection Models

Source: Youyang Gu, UCLA Statistical Machine Learning Lab
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This resource, created by Youyang Gu (and independent data scientist), aggregates projections from nearly forty different models and compares them to actual data on COVID-19 cases and deaths. The models are ranked against a "baseline" prediction of lagged actual death data. Model projections are compared at four-week intervals for the entire U.S. and for each state. Code and documentation are provided so these comparisons can be replicated and modified. The UCLA Statistical Machine Learning Group also provides a comparison of its model against several others, at the weekly level, for the entire U.S. and for each state.

 

COVID-19 Hospital Capacity Estimates 2020

Source: Harvard Global Health Institute (HGHI)
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This website gives projections of hospital capacity (such as number of ICU and hospital beds) for each of the 306 hospital markets (Hospital Referral Regions) in the U.S. The application allows users to select different scenarios for infection rates and length of time until a vaccine is widely available. More information on the forecasting tool can be found in news stories from The New York Times and ProPublica. The HGHI team also wrote a piece on how to make sense of changing predictions and the inherent uncertainty around forecast estimates.

 

COVID-19 Simulator

Source: Massachusetts General Hospital (MGH)
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This interactive tool designed by MGH (in collaboration with Harvard Medical School, Georgia Tech, and the Boston Medical Center) evaluates the impact of different social-distancing interventions (by varying their intensity and timing) on reduction in the spread of coronavirus in the U.S. until August 31, 2020. The information can help policymakers understand consequences of such interventions on the rate of new cases, potential strain on the healthcare system, and projected deaths. Data is available at the country and state level, with comparisons available between states.

 

COVID-19 Forecasts

Source: Center for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)
Go to resource

This site contains several national- and state-level forecasts of cumulative COVID-19 deaths for the next four weeks. Forecasting teams (largely from U.S. universities) predict numbers of deaths using different data types (e.g., COVID-19 data, demographic data, mobility data), statistical methods, and estimates of the impacts of interventions (e.g. social distancing, use of face coverings).

 

Is Your Community Ready to Reopen?

Source: CovidActNow
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This website provides state-by-state data aimed at supporting the decision to reopen the economy. State and county reopening risk levels (coded as elevated, moderate, or reduced) are based on 3 criteria: whether COVID-19 infections are in retreat, whether testing is widely available, and whether hospitals have enough resources.

 

COVID-19 Hospital Impact Model for Epidemics (CHIME)

Source: Penn Medicine
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This open-source tool allows hospitals to project new hospital admissions, ICU admissions, and patients requiring ventilation due to COVID-19. Users input data about their hospital and population and modify assumptions related to the spread of COVID-19. The tool then runs an epidemiological SIR (Susceptible, Infectious, Recovered) model to project the number of new hospitalizations per day. This tool can be used to create best- and worst-case scenarios to assist with hospital capacity planning. Related information includes user documentation (describing the objective of the app, data inputs, and tool outputs), a GitHub repository (developers can contribute to the tool or branch off to modify or expand on the code), and developer documentation.

 

Epidemic Calculator

Source: Gabriel Goh, OpenAI
Go to resource

This tool allows users to project exposures, infections, and hospitalizations due to COVID-19. Users input assumptions about COVID-19 transmission and clinical dynamics and the tool uses an epidemiological SEIR (Susceptible, Exposed, Infectious, Recovered) model to project the spread of COVID-19 and resulting hospitalizations.

 

COVID-19 Projections

Source: IHME
Go to resource

The Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation (IHME) projections include state and national information about COVID-19 case counts, hospital/ICU beds, and invasive ventilators available and needed for the projected cases. Projections are shown in graph form across time.

Data note: The validity and usefulness of IHME projections have been called into question; earlier versions of the statistical model did not incorporate transmission dynamics nor other epidemiologic methods. Over the course of 2020, the model improved in accuracy. However, several other models, such as those created by UCLA-suEIR and Columbia, have consistently provided more accurate projections.
 

US Health Weather Map

Source: Kinsa Insights
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This dashboard visualizes aggregated temperature data collected from Kinsa Insights' network of Smart Thermometers. The dashboard maps "(1) the trend in how illness levels are changing in the past week, (2) the illness levels we’re currently observing, and (3) the degree to which those levels are higher than the typical levels we expect to see at this point in the flu season" at the county level. Note that this dashboard does not track COVID-19 cases directly. This web page summarizes the technical approach used, including the statistical methods used to compare the method against the Influenza B outbreak in fall 2019.

 

Policy Actions and Preventing Spread of the Virus

This section contains information about policy actions taken to address urgent needs affected by measures to reduce the spread of the virus and treatment needs, as well as other policy changes to help with a rapid response.


COVID-19 Government Response Tracker

Source: University of Oxford Blavatnik School of Government
Go to resource

The University of Oxford Blavatnik School of Government's COVID-19 Government Response Tracker provides daily-by-country level data and visualizations on COVID-19 policy responses. The data include twenty indicators of policy response, including closure and containment policies, restrictions of movement, economic policies such as income support, and health system responses such as testing regimes and vaccination policies. These indicators are aggregated into four overall indices of the stringency and comprehensiveness of a region's policy response. The tracker also includes data on within-country variation in policy responses for US states and Canadian regions.

 

Key Metrics for COVID Suppression

Source: Harvard Global Health Institute
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This document quantifies COVID-19 risk levels at the county- and state-level, based on the number of new daily cases, and provides general guidance to policy makers and the public on targetting and suppressing COVID-19 outbreaks, for populations with different risk levels. The framework specifies key performance indicators for testing and contact tracing at each risk level and stresses the need to continue suppression at all risk levels. The guidance was developed by a network of research, policy and public health experts brought together by Harvard’s Global Health Institute and the Edmond J. Safra Center for Ethics.

Data note: As this document is dated July 1, 2020, some information may be outdated.
 

National COVID-19 Testing Action Plan

Source: Rockefeller Foundation
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The Rockerfeller Foundation published a report outlining guidelines for reopening the U.S. economy in the context of the global pandemic. Central to their plan is the expansion of a national testing campaign that includes contact tracing of infected individuals. Their report details how to make such a plan a reality, in part by encouraging coordination between the private and public sectors. These recommendations are in line with those from the Harvard Center for Ethics.

 

Roadmap to Pandemic Resilience

Source: Harvard Center for Ethics
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This report outlines recommendations on how to reopen the American economy through what Harvard deems a TTSI (Testing, Tracing and Supported Isolation) path. The report recommends implementing at least 5 million daily tests by early June to ensure an initial safe reopening of economic activity. It also describes a need for innovation in testing, and how the public and private sector can work together to spur economic growth in a safe public health context. This report is in line with the recommendations from the Rockefeller Foundation.

Data note: As this report is dated April 20, 2020, some information may be outdated.
 

Coronavirus Response Solution

Source: ESRI
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This ArcGIS solution includes a collection of maps and apps intended for use by public health agencies to understand the impact of COVID-19. The solution includes applications to track cases, policy changes, and testing sites.

Data note: As this post is dated March 18, 2020, some information may be outdated.
 

COVID-19 US State Policies

Source: Boston University
Go to resource

This site originates from a living document tracking states’ policy changes. It details what policies states have implemented, and when they have done so. Policies are outlined by topic and by state.

 

McDermottPlus COVID-19 Guidance Tracker

Source: McDermott Consulting
Go to resource

This living document is a summary of policy measures taken by federal agencies and states related to COVID-19. It shows measures in the U.S. in general, and by agency, and records the date they were issued.

 

Coronavirus (COVID-19) Global Data Tracker

Source: Tableau COVID-19 Data Hub
Go to resource

This website is a compilation of several dashboards showing COVID-19-related data. Example available dashboards include a Social Distancing Scorecard, which grades states’ and counties’ social distancing efforts by comparing mobility before and after COVID-19, and a U.S. map of COVID-19 cases.

 

Novel Coronavirus (COVID-19) Situation

Source: WHO
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The WHO website contains information for individuals, states, and agencies about how to handle the recent spread of the coronavirus, including news on recent developments as well as guidelines and trainings to prevent virus transmission. This link contains technical guidance for countries, laboratories, and public health agencies regarding the handling of COVID-19 (topics include emergency preparedness and response, guidance on clinical care, risk communication and community engagement, and more). This link contains links to daily WHO COVID-19 situation reports, which presents global and regional case counts and highlights top COVID news globally.

 

Press Release on 1135 Waivers

Source: Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services (CMS)
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Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services (CMS) press release from March 23, 2020, on the 11 waivers and what is in them.

 

Disaster Response Toolkit

Source: Medicaid
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This website contains information for beneficiaries and states that outlines Medicaid policies in the event of a crisis. Information includes Q&As between beneficiaries and Medicaid (such as how to enroll additional family members in Medicaid or replace a lost Medicaid card); a disaster preparedness toolkit; a memorandum with a summary of the types of Medicaid and CHIP strategies that can be deployed in an emergency situation, as well as an inventory of the various strategies available to states and the action needed to effectuate them; and FAQs for Medicaid and CHIP agencies (on topics such as resources available, emergency preparedness and response, benefit flexibilities, financing flexibilities, and more).

 

State Data and Policy Actions to Address Coronavirus

Source: Kaiser Family Foundation
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This web page summarizes a variety of state-level information related to COVID-19 including the policy responses, at-risk populations based on health status, health insurance coverage, treatment capacity, and test positivity rates. Data sets on the web page are downloadable as .csv files. Scroll down on the page to see a table and map on "State COVID-19 Health Policy Actions,#casesdeaths'>number" which show Section 1135 waivers approved.

 

Coronavirus Tracker

Source: National Governors Association
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This link contains information on federal and state policies related to COVID-19, in addition to U.S. news. Information is split up by type (ex: roadmap to recovery, health system readiness, funding, and more) and state. It also includes a state action tracker.

 

Coronavirus Telehealth Policy Fact Sheet

Source: Center for Connected Health Policy
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This page is a summary of how telehealth policies are changing and what is covered by various public and private payers with the information that has been released. It is a living document that could change frequently as new information and new policies become available or are enacted. It includes information at the federal level and some state-level guidance.

 

FAQ about Medicare telehealth

Source: Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services (CMS)
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An FAQ about Medicare telehealth, including how recently enacted legislation will allow CMS to utilize Medicare telehealth to address the coronavirus (COVID-19) public health emergency, what services can be provided by telehealth under the emergency declaration, and whether physicians and other qualified providers will be able to furnish Medicare telehealth services to beneficiaries in their homes.

Data note: This site was last updated January 7, 2021.
 

Other Resources

COVID-19 Behavioral Tracker

Source: Imperial College London, YouGov
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This tracker graphs country-level trends in attitudes and behaviors related to the pandemic, allowing users to easily make comparisons across countries (grouped by high, upper middle, and lower middle income) and over time. The data are derived from a series of COVID-related surveys conducted by YouGov, a polling company, across 30 countries from March 2020 to the present. The graphs can be subset to individual respondents.

Data note: YouGov provides little documentation about its COVID-specific survey methodology, but notes whether data for each country are representative of "total" or "online" populations. Demographics such as age and gender are also available. YouGov's overall sampling methodology is described on this page.
 

All of Us

Source: National Institutes of Health (NIH)
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The NIH All of Us Research Program aggregates biomedical data from a variety of sources, including electronic health records, surveys, and biosamples collected from hundreds of thousands of participants from across all 50 states. COVID-19 data include results from antibody tests and a survey on how COVID-19 has impacted participants and their communities. Aggregate statistics are made publicly available through the All of Us Data Browser. Researchers can apply to get access to participant-level data via the Research Workbench. The COVID-19 data will be made available to researchers via the Researcher Workbench as soon as possible.

 

COVID-19 Primer

Source: Primer
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Primer is an AI company that uses natural language processing to summarize emerging evidence from COVID-19 research published in PubMed-indexed journals, bioRxiv preprint repository, medRxiv preprint repository, and the arXiv preprint repository. They have created a dashboard that lists and links to articles trending in news outlets and on social media, and they have a searchable list of research categories and topics. The resource enables researchers and policy makers to identify key COVID-19 research papers and trends, and to search a database of key words to identify relevant research.

 

CARES Act Provider Relief Fund: Data

Source: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services
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This webpage provides data on how funding from the CARES Act was distributed to providers. The site includes reports showing which providers received a payment from the CARES Act general distribution, and targeted distributions to high-impact providers, safety net hospitals, rural hospitals (including critical access hospitals), and skilled nursing facilities. The underlying provider-level data can be downloaded from this page, and additional data on providers who received funding through the High-Impact Allocation of the Provider Relief Fund are available on this page.

 

COVID-19 Research Database

Source: COVID-19 Research Database
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This database contains a repository of research on COVID-19 from public and private sources. It provides de-identified and limited datasets from medical and pharmacy claims data, electronic health record data, mortality data, and consumer data. Data are available to members; for non-members, registration for access is free, though only not-for-profit, non-commercial use will be approved.

 

COVID-19 Resources for Behavioral Health Leaders

Source: The College for Behavioral Health Leadership
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This page contains links to many resources related to COVID-19, behavioral health, public health, and health administration, in addition to information on upcoming webinars on all of these topics.

 

American Community Survey (ACS)

Source: U.S. Census Bureau
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The ACS is an ongoing survey of more than 3.5 million households across the country that provides vital information on a yearly basis about the United States and its people. The resulting data set provides extremely detailed demographic information, aggregated at various geographic levels, to help determine how more than $675 billion in federal and state funding are distributed each year. This data set is freely available on Google Cloud. (After clicking “View Dataset,” first-time users need to create a project in Google Cloud to access the data).

 

Best Practices for Measuring the Social, Behavioral, and Economic Impact of Epidemics

Source: ICPSR
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This report reviews best practices for using data resources from ICPSR, its projects, and its collaborating partners for measuring the impact of epidemics. The report summarizes resources to identify measures of well-being, social connectedness, and other constructs that measure social and behavioral effects of the COVID-19 epidemic on populations’ health outcomes. The site includes suggestions for data resources to identify pre-crisis measures of social distancing, social networks, consumer confidence, unemployment, and the use of social media.

Data note: As this report is dated April 3, 2020, some information may be outdated.
 

LitCovid

Source: National Institute of Health, National Libraries of Medicine
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This is a curated literature hub that tracks up-to-date scientific information about the 2019 novel coronavirus published in PubMed. The website links to articles organized by topic (for example, treatment, diagnosis, or number of cases).

 

COVID-19 Survey Archive

Source: Societal Experts Action Network (SEAN)
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This open-access archive houses probability-based survey data and reports measuring public attitudes, behavior, and experiences related to the pandemic. It provides a weekly summary of key results each Friday morning.

 

Genomic Epidemiology of Novel Coronavirus

Source: NextStrain
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This is an open-source analysis and visualization of pathogen sequence data for COVID-19. This PDF describes the monitoring process and associated costs.

The main website contains links to the COVID-19 genome globally or by world region.

Data note: This source was last updated August 14, 2020.
 
 

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