COVID-19 Curated Data, Modeling, and Policy Resources

During the COVID-19 pandemic, a wealth of data sources, analytic tools, policy options, and other resources were posted publicly to help states, health care decision makers, providers, and others to predict community needs and direct resources based on the best available evidence. Below is a repository of publicly available resources organized by Mathematica.

A Sankey (flow) diagram; nodes on the left indicate data sources and nodes in the middle and on the right indicate data compilations. For a list of archived data sources and for detailed information on the data sources described below (such as information on data coverage, updating frequency, level of aggregation, API availability, and the extent of overlap between different sources), visit Mathematica’s COVID Data and Resources GitHub page.

Public Perceptions and Attitudes

These sites summarize data that's been collected on the public's perceptions and attitudes related to the pandemic, including COVID-19 risk, public health recommendations, mitigation strategies, and more.

COVID States Project

Source: COVID-19 Consortium for Understanding the Public’s Policy Preferences Across States, a joint project by researchers from Northeastern University, Harvard university, Rutgers University and Northwestern University
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The COVID State Tracker is a 50-state biweekly survey that assesses attitudes towards COVID-19, vaccines, social distancing, and trust in government and other organizations. The website includes reports organized by topic and a dashboard with state or national graphs of these perceptions and attitudes for each two week period from April to May 2020, each month from May to December 2020, and each two-month period thereafter. The survey is weighted to be representative of each state's population. Data are available for download, and individual level data are available upon request.


COVID-19 Vaccine Monitor

Source: Kaiser Family Foundation
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The Kaiser Family Foundation's COVID-19 Vaccine Monitor contains rich data on attitudes towards the pandemic, social distancing policies, and vaccination, based on monthly telephone surveys of approximately 1,500 adults. Dashboard displays show detailed information on respondents' trust in vaccines from different manufacturers, receptiveness to various pro-vaccine persuasive messages, doubts about vaccine efficacy, side effects, and boosters, intentions to vaccinate their children, and concerns about emerging variants. Statistics are presented overall and broken out by respondent race, gender, political affiliation, vaccination status or urban/rural status. The survey is weighted to reflect the 2019 Census distributions of age, race and socioeconomic status, and includes sampling in high-hesitancy areas.


COVID-19 Tweets

Source: Northeastern University's Lazer Lab
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COVID-19 Tweets tracks the most popular pandemic-related Twitter content shared by each state and the country as a whole, for each month from January 2020 to January 2021. Through their dashboard, users can view the most popular links, domains and keywords for each state; the links, domains, and keywords that are most distinctively popular in a given state; and the most popular keywords shared nationally that are flagged as misleading. For each category, graphs of monthly content volume are displayed, and the underlying data are downloadable.

Data note: This resource was last updated in January 2021.

COVID-19 Behavioral Tracker

Source: Imperial College London, YouGov
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This resource collects data on country-level trends in attitudes and behaviors related to the pandemic, allowing users to easily make comparisons across countries and over time. The raw data are derived from a series of COVID-related surveys conducted across 30 countries from March 2020 to March 2022 by YouGov (a polling company).

Data note: YouGov provides little documentation about its COVID-specific survey methodology, but notes whether data for each country are representative of "total" or "online" populations. Demographics such as age and gender are also available. YouGov's overall sampling methodology is described on this page. This resource was last updated in March 2022.

COVID-19 Survey Archive

Source: Societal Experts Action Network (SEAN)
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This open-access archive houses probability-based survey data and reports measuring public attitudes, behavior, and experiences related to the pandemic. It provides a weekly summary of key results each Friday morning.


Policies and Measures to Prevent COVID-19 Transmission

This section contains information on policies and measures taken to reduce the spread of COVID-19, help direct resources for treatment and economic assistance, and enable rapid response. This section includes school-specific policy responses (such as school closures and online learning).

Washington School Reopening Data

Source: Washington Office of the Superintendent of Public Instruction (OSPI)
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This state dashboard reports schools' reopening progress for each week from January 2021 to June 2021. Data on the percentage of students receiving in-person instruction on a daily or weekly basis are available for elementary, middle and high school students. The dashboard offers particularly detailed information on each district's weekly plans to offer remote, small-group, hybrid, or traditional in-person education, and whether or not in-person education is targeted towards students with disabilities, living in poverty, learning English as a second language, or with other special educational needs.

Data note: This resource was updated from January to June 2021.

Covid-19 School Response Dashboard

Source: The School Superintendents Association (AASA); the National Association of Secondary School Principals; the National Association of Elementary School Principals; Brown University Professor of Economics Emily Oster.
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This dashboard combines state-provided enrollment and case count data with school and school district biweekly surveys. The surveys assess in-person enrollment counts, staff counts, case rates, and various measures of coronavirus transmission mitigation efforts, such as online learning, 3- or 6-feet distancing, ventilation, or masking. Data are available by school type, grade range, usage of social distancing measures, and state, from August 2020 through May 2021. The dashboard also includes links to each state's data sources related to COVID-19 transmission in schools, with notes on what information is included in each state's data releases. Importantly, the data include cases among people associated with in-person schooling, regardless of where cases were acquired.

Data note: This resource was last updated in May 2021.

District Responses to COVID-19 School Closures

Source: Center on Reinventing Public Education (CRPE)
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This website contains information on school closures across 100 large, urban school districts serving 10 million students. It compiles district-level data into several analyses and compiles detailed information on district responses to school closures, including reopening plans and use of Elementary and Secondary School Emergency Relief (ESSER) funding.


COVID-19 Government Response Tracker

Source: University of Oxford Blavatnik School of Government
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The University of Oxford Blavatnik School of Government's COVID-19 Government Response Tracker provides daily-by-country level data and visualizations on COVID-19 policy responses. The data include twenty indicators of policy response, including closure and containment policies, restrictions of movement, economic policies such as income support, and health system responses such as testing regimes and vaccination policies. These indicators are aggregated into four overall indices of the stringency and comprehensiveness of a region's policy response. The tracker also includes data on within-country variation in policy responses for US states and Canadian regions.


Key Metrics for COVID Suppression

Source: Harvard Global Health Institute
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This document quantifies COVID-19 risk levels at the county- and state-level, based on the number of new daily cases, and provides general guidance to policy makers and the public on targetting and suppressing COVID-19 outbreaks, for populations with different risk levels. The framework specifies key performance indicators for testing and contact tracing at each risk level and stresses the need to continue suppression at all risk levels. The guidance was developed by a network of research, policy and public health experts brought together by Harvard’s Global Health Institute and the Edmond J. Safra Center for Ethics.

Data note: As this document is dated July 1, 2020, some information may be outdated.

National COVID-19 Testing Action Plan

Source: Rockefeller Foundation
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The Rockerfeller Foundation published a report outlining guidelines for reopening the U.S. economy in the context of the global pandemic. Central to their plan is the expansion of a national testing campaign that includes contact tracing of infected individuals. Their report details how to make such a plan a reality, in part by encouraging coordination between the private and public sectors. These recommendations are in line with those from the Harvard Center for Ethics.


Roadmap to Pandemic Resilience

Source: Harvard Center for Ethics
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This report outlines recommendations on how to reopen the American economy through what Harvard deems a TTSI (Testing, Tracing and Supported Isolation) path. The report recommends implementing at least 5 million daily tests by early June to ensure an initial safe reopening of economic activity. It also describes a need for innovation in testing, and how the public and private sector can work together to spur economic growth in a safe public health context. This report is in line with the recommendations from the Rockefeller Foundation.

Data note: As this report is dated April 20, 2020, some information may be outdated.

McDermottPlus COVID-19 Guidance Tracker

Source: McDermott Consulting
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This living document is a summary of policy measures taken by federal agencies and states related to COVID-19, through April 6, 2020. It shows measures in the U.S. in general, and by agency, and records the date they were issued.

Data note: This resource was last updated on April 6, 2020.

Novel Coronavirus (COVID-19) Situation

Source: WHO
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The WHO website contains information for individuals, states, and agencies about how to handle the recent spread of the coronavirus, including news on recent developments as well as guidelines and trainings to prevent virus transmission. This link contains technical guidance for countries, laboratories, and public health agencies regarding the handling of COVID-19 (topics include emergency preparedness and response, guidance on clinical care, risk communication and community engagement, and more). This link contains links to daily WHO COVID-19 situation reports, which presents global and regional case counts and highlights top COVID news globally.


Disaster Response Toolkit

Source: Medicaid
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This website contains information for beneficiaries and states that outlines Medicaid policies in the event of a crisis. Information includes Q&As between beneficiaries and Medicaid (such as how to enroll additional family members in Medicaid or replace a lost Medicaid card); a disaster preparedness toolkit; a memorandum with a summary of the types of Medicaid and CHIP strategies that can be deployed in an emergency situation, as well as an inventory of the various strategies available to states and the action needed to effectuate them; and FAQs for Medicaid and CHIP agencies (on topics such as resources available, emergency preparedness and response, benefit flexibilities, financing flexibilities, and more).


State Data and Policy Actions to Address Coronavirus

Source: Kaiser Family Foundation
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This web page summarizes a variety of state-level information related to COVID-19 including the policy responses, at-risk populations based on health status, health insurance coverage, treatment capacity, and test positivity rates. Data sets on the web page are downloadable as .csv files. Scroll down on the page to see a table and map on "State COVID-19 Health Policy Actions,#casesdeaths'>number" which show Section 1135 waivers approved.


Coronavirus Tracker

Source: National Governors Association
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This link contains information on federal and state policies related to COVID-19, in addition to U.S. news. Information is split up by type (ex: roadmap to recovery, health system readiness, funding, and more) and state. It also includes a state action tracker.


Coronavirus Telehealth Policy Fact Sheet

Source: Center for Connected Health Policy
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This page is a summary of how telehealth policies are changing and what is covered by various public and private payers with the information that has been released. It is a living document that could change frequently as new information and new policies become available or are enacted. It includes information at the federal level and some state-level guidance.


Social Distancing Scoreboard

Source: Unacast
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Unacast's dashboard shows county-level data on social distancing scores they've derived, percent changes in those scores over time, and each state's and county's assigned grade based on levels of decrease in the social distancing measures they calculate. Unacast uses mobile phone data to estimate changes in (1) average distance traveled, (2) trips to non-essential venues, and (3) number of human encounters. They estimate human encounters based on the probabilty that two mobile devices are in the same place at the same time.


COVID-19 Community Mobility Reports

Source: Google
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Reports show daily country-, state-, and region-/county-level percent changes in mobility, by type of location visited (retail & recreation, grocery & pharmacy, parks, transit stations, workplaces, and residential).


COVID-19 Impact Analysis Platform

Source: University of Maryland
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This platform provides data and metrics on COVID-19’s impact on population mobility, broken down by state trip type and date range, with data updated through April 2021. The platform is based on research findings from a multidisciplinary team of researchers at the Maryland Transportation Institute, working in partnership with the Center for Advanced Transportation Technology Laboratory. The platform is intended to inform the general public and support decision making.

Data note: This resource was last updated in April 2021.

SARS-CoV-2 Variants

This section contains information about SARS-CoV-2 viral variants, including the timing of their emergence and prevalence, by type.


Source: Scripps Research
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This resource reports daily information on the prevalence of Omicron, Delta, Alpha, and more than thirty other Variants of Interest, Variants of Concern, Mutations of Interest and Mutations of Concern. For a given SARS-COV-2 variant or mutation, a dashboard generates graphs of the daily prevalence at the state level, cumulative prevalence at the county level, as well as general information about the emergence of the variant, with the option to download prevalence data. Testing sample sizes are also reported.


Variants of Concern in Virginia

Source: Virginia Department of Health
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This state dashboard reports the prevalence of SARS-COV-2 variants across the state of Virginia. Visualizations of variant prevalence are available at the weekly regional level. The dashboard also offers particularly detailed tables on the cumulative prevalence of variants by ten-year age groups, gender, or race, with the option to download the data. The dashboard is updated weekly.


Variant Proportions

Source: CDC Covid Data Tracker
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This dashboard provides national and regional estimates of the prevalence of various SARS-CoV-2 variants. Visualizations are provided for weekly intervals from January 2022 onwards. Notably, because variant data are only available for cases where a sequencing test was performed, this dashboard adjusts proportions accordingly, using a survey design approach to provide more representative estimates. The resulting national and regional estimates are a closer approximation of the true prevalence of the variants, irrespective of sequencing frequency.

Data note: The CDC's estimates include their "Nowcast" adjustment which accounts for the three-week lag between specimen collection and genomic sequencing, and also accounts for three possible variants. This resource began reporting data in January 2022.

Genomic Epidemiology of Novel Coronavirus

Source: NextStrain
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This is an open-source analysis and visualization of pathogen sequence data for COVID-19. The dashboard can be used to create scatterplots, radial graphs, and branch diagrams showing the prevalence of SARS-COV-2 variants, with animations over specific timeframes and within specific countries or regions. This PDF describes the monitoring process and associated costs.



These sites provide detailed data, information, and resources related to vaccine development, vaccination rates, and vaccine acceptance.

CDC COVID Data Tracker

Source: CDC
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CDC's tracker reports the number of vaccine doses delivered and the percentage of people partially vaccinated, fully vaccinated, or having received additional doses, at the country and state levels. Dose and booster data are available at the daily state level, split by dose manufacturer and initial, second or additional (booster) doses. As of June 2022, these data are updated on a weekly basis. The CDC maintains separate dashboards to track vaccination rates among staff and patients at nursing homes and dialysis facilities.


COVID States Project

Source: COVID-19 Consortium for Understanding the Public’s Policy Preferences Across States
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The COVID State Tracker is a 50-state biweekly survey that assesses attitudes towards COVID-19, vaccines, booster shots, social distancing, and trust in government and other organizations. The dashboard generates state or national graphs of these perceptions and attitudes for each two-week period since April 30, 2020. The survey switched to bimonthly updates in December 2020 and is weighted to be representative of each state's population. Deep-dive reports on specific focus areas are published monthly. Data are available for download, and individual level data are available upon request. The project is a joint undertaking by researchers from Northeastern University, Harvard university, Rutgers University and Northwestern University.


Coronavirus (Covid-19) Vaccinations

Source: Our World in Data
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This dashboard provides comprehensive cross-country comparisons of cumulative and daily vaccination rates, the number and share of people who have received one or both doses, and booster rates for select countries. Data are included for 191 countries from December 15, 2020 to the present. The dashboard provides links to each country's vaccination data source, and for select countries, data are also available on the number of vaccinations by manufacturer, vaccine eligibility rules, and vaccine attitudes. All country- and state-level data are downloadable.


NRC-RIM Vaccine Central

Source: Univeristy of Minnesota's National Resource Center for Refugees, Immigrants, and Migrants (NRC-RIM)
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NRC-RIM has created a toolkit of resources for vaccinating people who may be uninsured, undocumented, or who do not speak English as a first language. It includes fact sheets and references on the sources of vaccine hesitancy among these populations, guides for conducting COVID-19 Vaccine-related focus groups, guidelines for culturally relevant messaging, educating potential vaccine recipients on their legal identification needs, health insurance requirements, and immigration-related concerns, and best practices for inclusive and effective vaccination drives.


COVID-19 Vaccine Development and Research Tracker

Source: London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine
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This site aggregates information related to the development and delivery of several COVID-19 vaccines. It covers the development timelines for over 300 vaccine candidates; the locations, dates and particpant demographics for all vaccine clinical trials; a living review of vaccine efficacy research that is updated weekly; and daily country-level vaccination rates for each of 26 vaccines currently being delivered. The resource is updated monthly.


Health Disparities and At-Risk Populations

This section lists data sources and metrics on racial disparities in the pandemic's impacts; high-risk populations; and efforts to examine risk factors, population needs, and risk-stratified outcomes. Risk is defined based on respiratory and other underlying conditions associated with severe COVID-19, social vulnerability, dense living conditions, and other factors.

Health Equity Tracker

Source: Satcher Health Leadership Institute, Morehouse School of Medicine
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This resource aggregates data on SARS-COV-2 cases, hospitalizations, and deaths at the national, state and county levels to characterize disparities in the pandemic's impacts across racial and ethnic groups, age groups, and by gender. The dashboard presents raw and age-adjusted incidence rates, as well as overall incidence levels relative to the population share of various demographic groups. The dashboard also highlights the portion of cases for which racial and ethnic data are not available.


The Color of Coronavirus

Source: American Public Media (APM) Research Lab
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The APM Research Lab calculates actual and age-adjusted COVID-19 mortality rates by racial/ethnic group, as well as changes in these rates over the course of the pandemic. The dashboards offer deeper dives into the geographic variation in mortality rates within each racial/ethnic group. Data analyses were conducted using the CDC's National Center for Health Statistics mortality data.


COVID Behind Bars Project

Source: UCLA School of Law
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This resource contains data on COVID-19 in prisons, jails, and immigration detention centers, as well as pandemic-related prison and jail releases, legal filings and court orders, and grassroots and community organizing efforts. Graphs and sortable tables display the number and incidence of COVID-19 cases (cumulative and active), deaths and tests for all federal and state incarceration facilities, and several county-level facilities. The data can be explored by state, and statistical summaries are provided separately for incarcerated people vs. staff at different types of facilities. Facilities can be ranked by their overall incidence as well as incidence per incarcerated population. State-level data on vaccination rates is also available. A github repo contains downloadable source data on cumulative and active cases, tests and deaths, provided at the daily facility level.

Data note: The site provides a data reporting and quality scorecard and discusses in detail variation in each facility's reporting procedures and data quality, and the implications for understanding the pandemic's impact on incarcerated populations.

AARP Nursing Home COVID-19 Dashboard

Source: AARP Public Policy Institute
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This dashboard tracks various aspects of nursing home COVID-19 infection rates, staff vaccination rates and PPE availability, and staffing rates, using data from CMS. Graphs showing rates of PPE availability, COVID-19 case rates, staffing shortages, or staff vaccination rates are available for the US or for individual states on a monthly basis since June 2020.


COVID-19 Community Vulnerability Index (CCVI)

Source: Surgo Foundation
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The CCVI combines data on COVID-19 risk factors and local healthcare systems with the CDC's Social Vulnerability Index to estimate county- and census-tract-level vulnerability to the COVID-19 pandemic. The vulnerability index is based on pre-COVID data and is meant to identify communities that are particularly vulnerable to COVID-19. The county-level vulnerability index is available for download via a spreadsheet, and the resource offers similar indices for Africa and the UK.


19&Me: COVID-19 Risk Score Calculator

Source: Mathematica
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This website estimates how much risk COVID-19 poses to individuals. Users can get estimates by entering their zip code, age, gender, symptom presence, and social distancing measures.


Pandemic Vulnerability Index

Source: National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences
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This dashboard provides a COVID-19 risk profile for each U.S. county based on a Pandemic Vulnerability Index (PVI), which is calculated using data from the CDC, county health rankings, and other population-level data. Components include a social distancing score, age distribution, number of hospital beds and co-morbities among others.


Identifying At Risk Populations During COVID-19

Source: IMAGE: NYC, The New York Academy of Medicine
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This site contains maps to identify neighborhoods with a higher risk of COVID-19 infections, based on demographic risk factors such as age, pre-existing conditions such as diabetes, and people living alone.


COVID-19 Preparedness: How Ready Is Your County?

Source: STAT News
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This dashboard seeks to help federal, state, and local officials across the country—particularly those in smaller communities—prepare for an onslaught of COVID-19 cases. The dashboard brings together a host of factors — from the relative age of the population to the number of nearby hospital beds and staff — to determine which counties are well-prepared for an outbreak and which counties might need more help. The dashboard is based on data updated through April 2021.

Data note: The dashboard notes that the methodology underlying the map does not take into account important factors like rates of insurance coverage or the migration of people from cities to rural areas. It also notes that the IHME model that the map relies on offers rosier views than some other models. To compare the IHME model’s performance to other models, see the Resources for Comparisons of COVID-19 Projection Models site. This resource was last updated in April 2021.

Interactive COVID-19 Childcare Map

Source: Yale University
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This dashboard uses U.S. Census data through February 2020 to estimate pre-existing demand for child care for the children of workers in critical sectors. It contains a map showing the number of children at-need and allows for selection of various types of providers, from teachers to childcare workers and school administrators.

Data note: This resource uses data as of February 2020.

Case Counts and Testing Rates

These resources include data sources and dashboards consolidating COVID-19 case data from multiple sources. The Johns Hopkins Coronavirus Resource Center includes worldwide data, and state- and county-level data for the United States.

Tracking COVID at U.S. Colleges and Universities

Source: New York Times
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This website from the New York Times provides an interactive map showing COVID-19 case counts at U.S. colleges and universities since the start of the pandemic. For each school (which is grouped by state, and searchable), the site also provides cumulative case counts and an infographic showing how weekly cases per capita changed over time at that school between 2020 and May 2021. The dataset is believed to be the most comprehensive collection of COVID-19 cases at colleges. Because colleges vary in testing rates, how they collect and report case data, and reopening plans, the data should not be used to make campus-to-campus comparisons.

Data note: This resource was last updated in May 2021.

CV19 Lab Testing Dashboard

Source: hc1
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This dashboard provides state- and county-level COVID-19 viral and antibody testing rates, positive and negative test results, and testing results disaggregated by age and gender. The data are collected from more than 20,000 lab testing locations (based on data supplied by Lab Coalition members). While this does not represent all testing being conducted across the U.S., the real-time updates on the dashboard can help identify trends in testing and results. Public health officials and people affiliated with healthcare organizations must create an account (free) to access the dashboard.


Global COVID-19 Outlook

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This dashboard contains case counts of COVID-19 around the world, by country and region. It also lists information about world-wide travel restrictions, as well as links to the WHO for advice and information on the virus for the public. It pulls data from government sources and news organizations.


JHU/ESRI Coronavirus COVID-19 Global Cases by the Center for Systems Science and Engineering

Source: Johns Hopkins Coronavirus Resource Center
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This dashboard pulls together multiple data sources to display confirmed cases, deaths, and recoveries from COVID-19 globally. In the United States, cases are documented at the county level. In China, data are at the province level. In Canada and Australia, data are at the city level. The remaining data are at the country level. Related links include a GitHub repository with all of the data sources used, a GIS feature layer with up-to-date information on COVID-19 cases, and other resources (such as an interactive case map visualization and guidelines on hygiene meant to inform both the public and policymakers about how to respond to the virus).

These worldwide data are consolidated continually. U.S. data include counts for each state and county, and some other jurisdictions.


Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) Cases in U.S.

Source: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)
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CDC’s COVID-19 web page includes links to each state’s public health website, where state-level reports can be found. State-level data may be more current than CDC data, as they may be updated before those updates are provided to CDC.

An overview of the number of COVID-19 cases in the U.S., overall and by state. The web page shows the national trend in COVID-19 cases by their report date and by the estimated date of illness onset. The page includes links to each state’s coronavirus web page.


Surveillance Tools

These resources are intended to help officials find and/or reliably measure COVID-19 cases. They include innovative surveillance methods to supplement traditional case identification, clinical data repositories, and resources for staying up-to-date on the evolving literature.

Monitoring Wastewater to Inform COVID-19 Response

Source: Healthy Davis Together, a collaboration between the City of Davis and UC Davis
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This guide describes Healthy Davis Together's experience using wastewater surveillance data to monitor and respond to SARS-CoV-2 outbreaks in Davis, California. The playbook describes the various geographic levels at which wastewater data can be collected and analyzed, the infrastructural costs of this monitoring, effective policy and advocacy responses, and a set of staffing, communication and analytic best practices based on HDT's experience.


The Sewershed Surveillance Project

Source: Missouri Department of Health and Senior Services, Missouri Department of Natural Resources, and the University of Missouri
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This dashboard and storymap show weekly SARS-CoV-2 wastewater viral concentrations from more than 100 sites across Missouri. Each site is classified as having an increasing trend, decreasing trend, or exhibiting no change. Missouri's wastewater testing program is among the first to test for levels of specific variants, and the dashboard provides information on the presence of specific variants at each site.


National Covid Cohort Collaborative

Source: NIH's National Center for Advancing Translational Sciences
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This is a public-access, free collaborative dataset containing electronic health record data for over 8 million patients who underwent covid testing, including over two million covid positive cases. The data currently contains 4.5 billion lab results, 1.4 billion medication records, as well as procedures, hospitalization, mortality, and vaccination information. The dataset also contains demographic information. Currently, over sixty clinical sites contribute EHR data for covid-tested patients to the repository. A dashboard containing demographics of the cohort and a data dictionary is available for the data warehouse, which uses the OMOP common data model. Synthetic data are publicly available; de-identified data (with shifted dates and limited geographic information) can be accessed with an approved Data Use Request; and limited data (including accurate date and geographic information) can be accessed with IRB approval.


Wastewater Surveillance to Determine SARS-CoV-2 Presence and Concentrations

Source: CDC
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Wastewater testing provides an alternative way to rapidly assess SARS-CoV-2 viral exposure among thousands of people, and in a manner that protects privacy. This cutting-edge surveillance tool can boost COVID-19 pandemic response by shedding light on infections among those who do not show symptoms or do not present for testing. Wastewater data can provide an early warning for new waves of infection and identify whether transmission is rising or waning. As of February 2022, the CDC's COVID Data Tracker includes wastewater surveillance data from monitoring SARS-CoV-2 levels in sewage at more than 400 testing sites across the country. Wastewater data allow for more rapid detection of changes in COVID-19 transmission and do not suffer from bias due to testing behavior and test accuracy. Mathematica is providing analytics to translate lab data on sewage biomarkers into policy insights for state and local officials and is also advising federal agencies on standards and best practices for the national system.

Data note: At present, wastewater viral concentrations cannot be used to determine the number of infected people in a community.

All of Us

Source: National Institutes of Health (NIH)
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The NIH All of Us Research Program aggregates biomedical data from a variety of sources, including electronic health records, surveys, and biosamples collected from hundreds of thousands of participants from across all 50 states. COVID-19 data include results from antibody tests and a survey on how COVID-19 has impacted participants and their communities. Aggregate statistics are made publicly available through the All of Us Data Browser. Researchers can apply to get access to participant-level data via the Research Workbench. The COVID-19 data will be made available to researchers via the Researcher Workbench as soon as possible.


COVID-19 Primer

Source: Primer
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Primer is an AI company that uses natural language processing to summarize emerging evidence from COVID-19 research published in PubMed-indexed journals, bioRxiv preprint repository, medRxiv preprint repository, and the arXiv preprint repository. They have created a dashboard that lists and links to articles trending in news outlets and on social media, and they have a searchable list of research categories and topics. The resource enables researchers and policy makers to identify key COVID-19 research papers and trends, and to search a database of key words to identify relevant research.



Source: National Institute of Health, National Libraries of Medicine
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This is a curated literature hub that tracks up-to-date scientific information about the 2019 novel coronavirus published in PubMed. The website links to articles organized by topic (for example, treatment, diagnosis, or number of cases).


Diagnostic Testing Methods and Coding

This section provides data sources on the performance of different diagnostic assays as well as test codes used to identify patients diagnosed with COVID-19. New ICD-10 codes for COVID-19 codes and repurposed existing codes will be important for tracking the epidemic, conditions associated with COVID-19, and treatment provided. Consistent with the WHO update to the ICD-10, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s National Center for Health Statistics (CDC/NCHS) will implement a new diagnosis code in the International Classification of Diseases, Tenth Revision, Clinical Modification (ICD-10-CM) for reporting, effective April 1, 2020.

NIH COVID-19 Treatment Guidelines

Source: National Institutes of Health
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The NIH maintains an archive of its official diagnosis and treatment guidelines, from April 2020 to the present. These guidelines include information on the relative effectiveness of certain tests, variations in treatment effectiveness by patient demographics or pre-existing conditions, and the efficacy of experimental treatments.


COVID-19 Testing Project

Source: UCSF, UC Berkeley, Chan Zuckerberg Biohub, and Innovative Genomics Institute
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This website provides tables and visual comparisons of performance of different commercially-available antibody tests, including lateral flow assays (also known as rapid serology tests) and ELISA immunoassays. Performance metrics include specificity and sensitivity, as well as percent positive, and are shown for different time periods since illness onset. The website provides a link to the scientific paper (in pre-print) detailing findings and methods.


COVID-19 Coding and Guidance

Source: AMA
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This announcement from the American Medical Association (AMA) reports a new Current Procedural Terminology (CPT) code for reporting COVID-19 tests.  It also links to a fact sheet that summarizes coding guidance for this new code. The fact sheet includes a summary of the code and its purpose, a clinical example, and a description of the procedure.



Source: LOINC
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LOINC (Logical Observation Identifiers Names and Codes) is a clinical terminology used worldwide; it is designed to consistently send clinical data electronically between health care entities. LOINC contains codes primarily for lab tests, diagnostic image testing, and clinical documentation and is mandated to be used to pass reportable lab test results to public health agencies. SNOMED, a clinical terminology, is a collection of medical terms across domains. This webinar from LOINC provides a recording and presentations from a collection of experts on the responses from key government and terminology experts on codes and descriptions to be used to consistently describe testing for and description of COVID-19.


Contact Tracing

These resources address several key topic areas, including: (1) contact tracing protocols and scripts; (2) training resources; (3) contact tracing workforce staffing calculators; (4) examples of public information campaigns; (5) case management and digital contact tracing tools, including discussions of data security and privacy considerations, and (6) other general resources.

State Approaches to Contact Tracing During the COVID-19 Pandemic

Source: National Academy for State Health Policy (NASHP) & Mathematica
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This webpage summarizes the various approaches that each state has taken to contact tracing, including the state's contact tracing program model, workforce, technology, and funding. Users can explore states' contact tracing approaches by category, and a color-coded map categorizes states into one of three approaches: in-house, partnering, and contracting.


COVID-19 Sample Training Plans for Contact Tracers, Case Investigators, and Supervisors

Source: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
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F25CDC has provided various guides for contact tracing. The Talking with a Patient guide allows for the collection of critical information about a person (patient) diagnosed with COVID-19 and potentially exposed contacts, while providing support, referrals, and answers to questions the patient may have. The guide includes a script and table of potential contacts and exposure locations. The Notification of Exposure guide allows for an exchange of information with the person (contact) exposed to COVID-19 and offers an opportunity to answer questions and provide referrals for testing, medical evaluation and other necessary support services. The guide includes detailed scripts for the introduction, collecting demographic and health information, and reviewing quarantine recommendations.


Contact Tracing—Get and Keep America Open: Supporting states, tribes, localities, and territories

Source: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
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CDC provides a COVID-19 Contact Tracing Training: Guidance, Resources, and Sample Training Plan that includes training topics that might be helpful for state and local public health jurisdictions to consider when designing their own training plan for COVID-19 contact tracers. This web page summarizes the core elements of contact tracing to stop COVID-19 transmission. This interim guidance document is intended to assist state, local, territorial and tribal health departments develop jurisdictional plans for the implementation and enhancement of COVID-19 case investigation and contact tracing efforts (content will be updated as new information is available).

The Digital Contact Tracing Tools for COVID-19 worksheet summarizes the primary uses and purposes of digital tracing tools, including the following:

  • Case management tools that capture data on cases and contacts; some allow for automated notification and follow-up.
  • Proximity tracking tools that use Bluetooth or GPS to track an individual’s exposure to cases; used in addition to contact tracing case management tools.

The Preliminary Criteria for the Evaluation of Digital Contact Tracing Tools for COVID-19 guidance document provides preliminary criteria to define minimum and preferred characteristics of digital contact tracing tools to help health departments overcome one or more obstacles in the COVID-19 contact tracing workflow. The guidance is based on preliminary research and targeted discussions with contact tracing and informatics experts across county, state, and federal governments; national public health associations; academic consortia; and nongovernmental organizations.


Provider Capacity and Patient Needs

These resources include publicly available data sources as well as COVID-19 modeling sites about hospital availability and supply, and the location of physicians and other clinicians.

HRSA Health Center COVID-19 Survey

Source: Health Resources and Services Administration
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On a biweekly basis, HRSA conducts surveys of health centers nationwide and provides a a dashboard and reports with state-level summary statistics on vaccination (the number of vaccinations administered, immunization rates overall and by ethnic group, perceived challenges to immunization, and sources of vaccines), COVID-19 testing (testing rates, time to receive test results, and rates of mobile or pop-up sites), and visit rates. The survey covers 79% of all health centers, and the data are refreshed weekly.


Monthly Telehealth Regional Tracker

Source: FAIR Health
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This tracker reports region-level information on telehealth usage. For each month from January 2020 to March 2022, the tracker shows the most common procedure codes reported on telehealth claims, the fraction of all claims that represent telehealth services, and changes in telehealth claim volume, most common diagnoses overall, and most common mental health diagnoses. For months between January and December 2020, comparisons are made to the corresponding month in 2019. From January 2021 onward, comparisons are made between the selected month and the previous month.

Data note: This resource was last updated in March 2022.

COVID-19 Cost Tracker

Source: FAIR Health
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This tracker reports state-level charges for three types of COVID-19 treatment: outpatient, inpatient without ICU admission, and inpatient with ICU admission. Median and average charges are reported diagnostic, testing, facility and professional fees (aggregated together). The data include amounts charged to a patient (for uninsured or out-of-network services) as well as estimated maximum allowable amounts (for in-network services). The statistics provided are calculated by FAIR Health as part of their COVID-19 cost benchmarking.


Secondary Impacts

The resources included in this section can be used to examine secondary (that is, indirect) impacts of COVID-19, including effects on employment, education, food security, and mental health.

Exploring the Educational Impacts of COVID-19

Source: Northwest Evaluation Assocation (NWEA)
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This dashboard summarizes academic achievement by grade, subject, and student demographics (including gender, race, and school-level average poverty rate) at the state level for Fall 2020, Spring 2021, and Fall 2021. Graphs can be generated showing variation in academic performance for the same student cohort across several years, or for different student cohorts at the same point in time. The data are provided for states with significant use of the Mapping Academic Progress assessments (developed by NWEA) among public schools. Sample sizes are reported to better contextualize patterns of academic achievement.

Data note: This resource provides analysis for Fall 2020, Spring 2021, and Fall 2021.

Central Banks' Monetary Responses to Covid-19

Source: Bank for International Settlements
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This global database provides details on central banks' monetary policy responses to Covid-19 for 39 countries on a monthly basis from March 2020 to October 2021. The data include central banks' public announcements of monetary policy measures; various categories of responses; and changes to interest rate measures, reserve policies, lending operations, asset purchase programs and foreign exchange operations. A dashboard is provided to visualize the data.

Data note: This resource was last updated in October 2021.

SafeGraph Data for Coronavirus Response

Source: SafeGraph
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SafeGraph provides aggregated and anonymized spatial data on how people move throughout the U.S., including locations of points of interest where people spend time or money and traffic patterns (how often people visit, how long they stay, where they came from, where else they go) for specific places. Researchers can get free access to the data after completing a Google Form request.


COVID-19 Impact on Job Openings and Labor Turnover

Source: Bureau of Labor Statistics
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This site posts monthly reports (from March 2020 to July 2021) summarizing results from the Job Openings and Labor Turnover Survey (JOLTS) during the pandemic. It provides tables summarizing the rates and levels of job openings, hires, and quits by service sector and by region, unadjusted and seasonally adjusted. These statistics are based on data collected by JOLTS from over 16,000 business establishments via phone and web interviews.

Data note: This resource was last updated in July 2021.

Economic Tracker

Source: Opportunity Insights
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This dashboard, which draws on anonymized data from private companies and the U.S. Census Bureau, and various state Departments of Labor, shows the economic impacts of COVID-19, including impacts on consumer spending, unemployment claims, small business revenue, and job postings, by industry. The data can be used to understand job losses induced by the immediate economic effects of the pandemic, as well as the initial effects of the pandemic on job separation and search activity. The dashboard also displays COVID-19 impacts on student learning from Zearn (an education non-profit that partners with schools to provide a program called Zearn Math) and case data from The New York Times. The underlying data are not currently publicly available, though they may be made available in the future.


Household Pulse Survey

Source: U.S. Census Bureau
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Created in response to COVID-19, the U.S. Census Bureau Household Pulse Survey collects data on household experiences related to employment, eduation, food security, housing security, and mental and physical well-being during the COVID pandemic. State-level data are collected and released weekly. The Census Bureau provides an interactive dashboard with maps, figures, and sortable tables showing data summaries , as well as downloadable data spreadsheets.


Small Business Pulse Survey

Source: U.S. Census Bureau
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The U.S. Census Bureau's Small Business Pulse Survey collects data on the impact of COVID-19 on small businesses throughout the U.S. The webpage links to a dashboard that provides maps and graphs summarizing the data (which are periodically updated), and links to downloadable state- and MSA- level datasets.

Data note: Data collection closed in April 2021.

CARES Act Provider Relief Fund: Data

Source: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services
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This webpage provides data on how funding from the CARES Act was distributed to providers. The site includes reports showing which providers received a payment from the CARES Act general distribution, and targeted distributions to high-impact providers, safety net hospitals, rural hospitals (including critical access hospitals), and skilled nursing facilities. The underlying provider-level data can be downloaded from this page, and additional data on providers who received funding through the High-Impact Allocation of the Provider Relief Fund are available on this page.


Best Practices for Measuring the Social, Behavioral, and Economic Impact of Epidemics

Source: ICPSR
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This report reviews best practices for using data resources from ICPSR, its projects, and its collaborating partners for measuring the impact of epidemics. The report summarizes resources to identify measures of well-being, social connectedness, and other constructs that measure social and behavioral effects of the COVID-19 epidemic on populations’ health outcomes. The site includes suggestions for data resources to identify pre-crisis measures of social distancing, social networks, consumer confidence, unemployment, and the use of social media.

Data note: As this report is dated April 3, 2020, some information may be outdated.

Forecasting Tools

These resources provide projections of case counts, exposures, infections, hospitalizations, and ventilator use, and proxy measures for infections.

COVID-19 Projections

Source: Columbia University
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The COVID-19 forecast, created by the Shaman group at Columbia University, accurately predicted actual deaths and case rates according to evaluations of the model's predictions in 2020. The model offers projections under various assumptions around the strength of social distancing restrictions during the prediction interval. Projections of case rates, death rates, and bed availability in the next week, three weeks, or six weeks can be exported in raw form from their GitHub site or viewed in graphs or maps.

Data note: The validity and usefulness of IHME projections has been called into question; earlier versions of the statistical model did not incorporate transmission dynamics nor other epidemiologic methods. Over the course of 2020, the model improved in accuracy. However, several other models, such as those created by UCLA-suEIR and Columbia, have consistently provided more accurate projections.

Resources for Comparing COVID-19 Projection Models

Source: Youyang Gu, UCLA Statistical Machine Learning Lab
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This resource, created by Youyang Gu (and independent data scientist), aggregates projections from nearly forty different models and compares them to actual data on COVID-19 cases and deaths. The models are ranked against a "baseline" prediction of lagged actual death data. Model projections are compared at four-week intervals for the entire U.S. and for each state. Code and documentation are provided so these comparisons can be replicated and modified. The UCLA Statistical Machine Learning Group also provides a comparison of its model against several others, at the weekly level, for the entire U.S. and for each state.


COVID-19 Hospital Capacity Estimates 2020

Source: Harvard Global Health Institute (HGHI)
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This website gives projections of hospital capacity (such as number of ICU and hospital beds) for each of the 306 hospital markets (Hospital Referral Regions) in the U.S. The application allows users to select different scenarios for infection rates and length of time until a vaccine is widely available. More information on the forecasting tool can be found in news stories from The New York Times and ProPublica. The HGHI team also wrote a piece on how to make sense of changing predictions and the inherent uncertainty around forecast estimates.


COVID-19 Simulator

Source: Massachusetts General Hospital (MGH)
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This interactive tool designed by MGH (in collaboration with Harvard Medical School, Georgia Tech, and the Boston Medical Center) evaluates the impact of different social-distancing interventions (by varying their intensity and timing) on reduction in the spread of coronavirus in the U.S. until August 31, 2020. The information can help policymakers understand consequences of such interventions on the rate of new cases, potential strain on the healthcare system, and projected deaths. Data is available at the country and state level, with comparisons available between states.


COVID-19 Forecasts

Source: Center for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)
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This site contains several national- and state-level forecasts of cumulative COVID-19 deaths for the next four weeks. Forecasting teams (largely from U.S. universities) predict numbers of deaths using different data types (e.g., COVID-19 data, demographic data, mobility data), statistical methods, and estimates of the impacts of interventions (e.g. social distancing, use of face coverings).


COVID-19 Hospital Impact Model for Epidemics (CHIME)

Source: Penn Medicine
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This open-source tool allows hospitals to project new hospital admissions, ICU admissions, and patients requiring ventilation due to COVID-19. Users input data about their hospital and population and modify assumptions related to the spread of COVID-19. The tool then runs an epidemiological SIR (Susceptible, Infectious, Recovered) model to project the number of new hospitalizations per day. This tool can be used to create best- and worst-case scenarios to assist with hospital capacity planning. Related information includes user documentation (describing the objective of the app, data inputs, and tool outputs), a GitHub repository (developers can contribute to the tool or branch off to modify or expand on the code), and developer documentation.


Epidemic Calculator

Source: Gabriel Goh, OpenAI
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This tool allows users to project exposures, infections, and hospitalizations due to COVID-19. Users input assumptions about COVID-19 transmission and clinical dynamics and the tool uses an epidemiological SEIR (Susceptible, Exposed, Infectious, Recovered) model to project the spread of COVID-19 and resulting hospitalizations.


COVID-19 Projections

Source: IHME
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The Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation (IHME) projections include state and national information about COVID-19 case counts, hospital/ICU beds, and invasive ventilators available and needed for the projected cases. Projections are shown in graph form across time.

Data note: The validity and usefulness of IHME projections have been called into question; earlier versions of the statistical model did not incorporate transmission dynamics nor other epidemiologic methods. Over the course of 2020, the model improved in accuracy. However, several other models, such as those created by UCLA-suEIR and Columbia, have consistently provided more accurate projections.

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